Glossary

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  • Galley
  • Garalde
  • Glyph
Galley. Plate from the Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers by Diderot and d'Alembert. Musée de l'Imprimerie de Lyon, inv 1286 2

Galley

Wood or metal tray, closed on two or three sides, in wich lines of type are laid during the composition process.

Maximilien Vox's classification. Published in: Dossier Vox, Rémy Magermans, 1976, p. 255. Courtesy of André Jammes

Garalde

In 1953, the French type designer Maximilien Vox devised a system for classifying typefaces. His system was taken up and completed in 1961 by the Association Typographique Internationale (International Typography Association, or ATypl); since that time, it has been the authorative system. Vox divided historical typefaces (from the invention of the printing press to the mid-19th century) into four major families. These include the Humanists, i.e typefaces that were created in Venice around 1470, the Garaldes, a type style of the Baroque period, the Transitionals, the first of wich was the Romain du Roi face from the late 17th century, and the Didones, wich were introduced by Giambattista Bodoni abd the Didot family in the late 18th century. The name "Garalde" is the combination of the last name of Garamont and the first name of Aldus Manutius. The "Aldine Type" perfected by Manutius and his typecutter Francesco Griffo between 1495 and the early 16th century was a model for Garamont. But relatively few sizes of it were made and it was little used by Aldus Manutius, who produced mainly works in Greek characters or in italics. Manutius's work was completed in the Paris printing shop of Robert Estienne in the 1530s, with the production of a complete set of type in several sizes. Compared with the Humanist typefaces, wich they quickly supplanted, the new characters were both more refined and more readable - they featured slightly more vertical axes, a more marked contrast between thin and thick stroke weights, subtler counters and much lighter serifs. The Garaldes would go on to dominate Western European typography until the 18th century. They were the subject of renewed interest in the late 19th century, and multiple re-interpretations since they have helped them retain their popularity.

One of many glyphs belonging to Garamond Premier Pro. Collection: Musée de l'Imprimerie de Lyon. © 2011 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved. Adobe is a registred trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or countries.

Glyph

Originally, a groove or channel carved into a surface. In digital typography, a glyph is any graphic symbol (letter, number, punctuation mark, space, etc.)