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  • Full type case

    Full type case



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  • The printer's workshop.

    The printer's workshop.

    Illuminated version of Josse Bade's trademark, in Chants royaux sur la Conception, vers 1530, "Le doctrinal sans macule".

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  • Trademark of the Parisian printer Josse Bade, presenting his printing shop.

    Trademark of the Parisian printer Josse Bade, presenting his printing shop.

    Two of the printing press workers are visible on the left: one is turning the screw, while the other is spreading ink on the ink-balls. On the right, the typesetter is sitting at the type case, reading the text on his visorium. Behind him, bound volumes are ready to be sold to customers.

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  • Gutenberg-style printing press.

    Gutenberg-style printing press.

    Gutenberg-style printing press at the Musée de l’Imprimerie in Lyon.

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  • Mozarabic Missal, Toledo, 1500.

    Mozarabic Missal, Toledo, 1500.

    The colophon of this Spanish missal provides a good illustration of how printed books were distributed in Europe: the publication, commissioned by cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, was paid for by the Italian bookseller Melchior Gurrizo and the actual printing was done by Petrum Hagenbach Alemanus, a German.

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  • Printing establishments in Europe from 1470 to 1500.

    Printing establishments in Europe from 1470 to 1500.

    Maps by Philippe Nieto. In: Le Berceau du livre imprimé. Autour des incunables, Brepols, 2010, Collection Études Renaissantes

  • The comparative mobility of printers from Lyon and Paris in the 15th century.

    The comparative mobility of printers from Lyon and Paris in the 15th century.

    By convention, a printer's travels are indicated by a line representing the shortest, or most likely, path between two places. The thickness of the line indicates the number of journeys from one place to another. The dotted lines indicate itineraries within a region for which a precise destination could not be established. A question mark is used to indicate uncertainty.

  • Watermarks on paper from the Amboise city archives (15th century).

    Watermarks on paper from the Amboise city archives (15th century).

    The watermark is a pattern created by a wire shape attached to the paper mould. Paper over the area of the wire is thinner, allowing the light to show through. Watermarks can be used to date paper, locate paper mills and identify paper-makers. The watermarks here depict a water wheel and a unicorn.

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  • Portrait of Johannes Gutenberg

    Portrait of Johannes Gutenberg

    In: André Thevet Vrais portraits et vie des hommes illustres, Paris, veuve de Jacques Kerver,1584.

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  • Origin of printers from Lyon and Paris in the 15th century.

    Origin of printers from Lyon and Paris in the 15th century.



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  • Gasparinus Barzizius

    Gasparinus Barzizius

    Epistolae. Ed. Johannes Heynlin dit "de Lapide", Paris, Ulrich Gering, Martin Crantz et Michael Friburger, 1470, in 4°. The final poem in the first book printed in Paris, giving the first names of the three printers: Michel [Friburger], Ulrich [Gering], and Martin [Krantz].

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  • <span class='italique'>Catalogue des livres de Robert Estienne</span>, 1544..

    Catalogue des livres de Robert Estienne, 1544..



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  • Portrait of Ulrich Gering

    Portrait of Ulrich Gering

    17th-century engraving, based on a portrait (now lost) in the Collège de Montaigu.

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  • Letters of naturalisation by Louis XI for the three typographers, February 1474/1475.

    Letters of naturalisation by Louis XI for the three typographers, February 1474/1475.



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  • Stained-glass window from the Manufacture de Sèvres

    Stained-glass window from the Manufacture de Sèvres

    Stained-glass window depicting the Renaissance, of the inventions, discoveries and works that heralded the arrival of the Renaissance between 1450 and 1550.

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  • <span class='italique'>Tristant chevalier de la Table ronde nouvellement imprimé à Paris</span>, Vérard, 1496.

    Tristant chevalier de la Table ronde nouvellement imprimé à Paris, Vérard, 1496.

    In the 15th century, to protect the first pages of books (which were sold without boards), booksellers began to leave a blank first page, on which they would briefly note the title of the work. This is how the title page came into being.

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  • <span class='italique'>Roman de Tristan</span>, Antoine Vérard, 1496

    Roman de Tristan, Antoine Vérard, 1496

    This copy of Roman de Tristan, printed in Paris by Antoine Vérard in 1496, resembles a manuscript in every respect. It was printed on parchment (most of the other copies are on paper) and it has been richly illuminated. The blackletter type is an imitation of the book hand used in French manuscripts of the 15th century.

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  • <span class='italique'>Divers jeux rustiques et autres œuvres</span>, Paris, F. Morel, 1560.

    Divers jeux rustiques et autres œuvres, Paris, F. Morel, 1560.

    A modern title page from the 1530s. The information (title, author) is well organised, the design is simple and the address of the publisher and the publication date are clearly visible.

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  • <span class='italique'>New Testament</span>, Lyon, Buyer, 1476

    New Testament, Lyon, Buyer, 1476

    Early printed books did not have a title page. This edition of the New Testament (Lyon, Buyer, 1476) starts right off with a phrase taken from manuscript production: "Cy commence" or "Here begins" (in Latin Incipit).

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  • Latin Bible with Glossa Ordinaria (Strasbourg, ca. 1480)

    Latin Bible with Glossa Ordinaria (Strasbourg, ca. 1480)

    A layout typical of medieval manuscripts is here adopted for the first edition of the Latin Bible with glossa (Strasbourg, ca. 1480). The text of the Bible appears in the centre of the page in two columns in large blackletter type. The commentary, or gloss, completely surrounds the text. Like a medieval manuscript, this copy was richly illuminated in gold leaf and colours.

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  • Francesco Filelfo, <span class='italique'>Epistolae</span>, Leyde, Johannes Severi, 1509

    Francesco Filelfo, Epistolae, Leyde, Johannes Severi, 1509

    In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, title pages were often complex, and devoid of any sort of organisation. The title of this edition of Francesco Filelfo's Epistolae (Leyden, Johannes Severi, 1509) features an extremely long text dotted with engravings, whose sole purpose is to fill in the spaces left blank.

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  • Textura typeface

    Textura typeface

    The stiffest and most formal variant of Gothic script, Textura primarily consists of thick vertical lines parallel to each other.

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  • Bâtarde

    Bâtarde

    A cursive face that was used for French 15th century incunabula.

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  • <span class='italique'>Les Quatre livres de Caton</span>

    Les Quatre livres de Caton

    Les Quatre livres de CatonParis, R. Breton et Ph. Danfrie, 1559, 8°. Robert Granjon's "lettre française d’art de main" (referred to as "Civilité" as of the 18th century), which he invented in 1557 in Lyon. It imitated the cursive handwriting popular at the time, but it was little used for printing books.

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  • Rotunda typeface

    Rotunda typeface

    A rounded, flexible typeface used for all types of books printed in Latin (legal and philosophical treatises, theological works, etc.).

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  • First roman typeface

    First roman typeface

    A copy of Italian humanist script, this typeface was used by Konrad Sweyheim and Arnold Pannartz, two German printers working at the monastery of Subiaco (Italy) in 1465.

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  • Incipit by Gasparinus Barzizius

    Incipit by Gasparinus Barzizius

    Incipit by Gasparinus BarziziusEpistolae, ed. Johannes Heylin dit "de Lapide", Paris, Ulrich Gering, Martin Crantz et Michael Friburger, [1470], in 4° . The first fonts used in Paris were roman fonts. They were ungainly, but they were – oddly – already quite slender. Nevertheless, Parisian printers reverted to the use of blackletter fonts in 1473.

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  • First italic type.

    First italic type.

    Description: Engraved by Francesco Griffo for Aldus Manutius in 1499, this typeface was based on cancellaresca, the cursive handwriting favoured by Italian humanists.

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  • Geoffroy Tory, <span class='italique'>Champ Fleury</span>. Art & Science de la deue & vraye Proportion des Lettres. Paris, 1529.

    Geoffroy Tory, Champ Fleury. Art & Science de la deue & vraye Proportion des Lettres. Paris, 1529.

    This famous work established a calligraphic theory for designing roman letter-forms.

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  • First roman typefaces: Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 june 2011, 1'27''

    First roman typefaces: Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 june 2011, 1'27''

    A type designer's view of the first roman typefaces

  • Henry de Saint-Didier, <span class='italique'>Traité...</span>

    Henry de Saint-Didier, Traité...

    Henry de Saint-Didier, Traité contenant les secrets du premier livre sur l’espee seule, Paris, Dallier, 1573. A picture is worth a thousand words. Woodcuts could be used for teaching purposes, as in this fencing manual..

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  • Béroalde de Verville, <span class='italique'>Le Tableau des riches inventions…</span>

    Béroalde de Verville, Le Tableau des riches inventions…

    Béroalde de Verville, Le Tableau des riches inventions… from Poliphilo's Strife of Love in a Dream, Paris, Guillemot, 1600, 2° The second French translation of Poliphilo's Strife of Love in a Dream , featured a copperplate engraved frontispiece. This technique resulted in images that were more delicate than those created using woodblocks.

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  • Vésale, <span class='italique'>De humani corporis fabrica</span>, 1543

    Vésale, De humani corporis fabrica, 1543

    A masterpiece of woodblock printing in one of the most important Renaissance treatises on anatomy. A fine example of illustration used in a scientific work. Despite its casual appearance, this engraving contains a great deal of scientific information – each bone is numbered and exactly described in captions that were printed separately.

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  • A page from Andrea Alciato's <span class='italique'>Emblemata</span>.

    A page from Andrea Alciato's Emblemata.

    Andrea Alciato's Emblemata (Lyon, Macé Bonhomme, 1551).
    Emblem books were a very popular sub-genre in the 16th and 17th centuries. Images and verses were combined to illustrate a moral.

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  • Francesco Colonna, <span class='italique'>Hypnerotomachia Poliphili</span>.

    Francesco Colonna, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili.

    Aldus Manutius, Venise, 1499.

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  • Changes in the design of books printed in Paris between 1530 and 1560 (1) 
Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 4’24'

    Changes in the design of books printed in Paris between 1530 and 1560 (1) Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 4’24"



  • Changes in the design of books printed in Paris between 1530 and 1560  (2) 
Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 5’18, 4'41

    Changes in the design of books printed in Paris between 1530 and 1560 (2) Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 5’18, 4'41



  • Pedlar selling alphabets books of hours.

    Pedlar selling alphabets books of hours.

    Coloured woodblock print in Anciens cris de Paris, 16th century.

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  • <span class='italique'>Le Grant pardon de Nostre Dame de Reims.</span>

    Le Grant pardon de Nostre Dame de Reims.

    Paris, Jean du Pré or Guy Marchant, 1482.
    This is without doubt the earliest French poster that has come down to us. It was printed in 1482 for the purpose of collecting money to restore Rheims cathedral, which had been damaged by fire the previous year. The poster is an indulgence, informing the faithful that if they contribute money to the project, their sins will be forgiven .

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  • <span class='italique'>L'homme anatomique</span>, Thielman Kerver, 1520

    L'homme anatomique, Thielman Kerver, 1520

    Books of hours published in Paris in the second half of the 16th century often featured an image of Anatomical Man or Zodiac Man: a skeleton or a naked human figure indicating the influences of the planets and the four elements (fire, air, water and earth) on the human body. It was believed that, just as the earth is divided into four elements, the body was ruled by four humours (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile). What this engraving reveals is the inclusion, in works printed in blackletter characters and coexisting with humanist works, of astrological quotations and precepts of folk medicine.

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  • <span class='italique'>La terrible et merveilleux signe qui a esté veu sur la Ville de Paris</span>. Paris.

    La terrible et merveilleux signe qui a esté veu sur la Ville de Paris. Paris.

    Alain Lotrian, 1530.

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  • Guillaume Budé, <span class='italique'>Commentarii linguae graecae</span>, Paris, Josse Bade

    Guillaume Budé, Commentarii linguae graecae, Paris, Josse Bade



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  • Erasmus published by Johann Froben

    Erasmus published by Johann Froben



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  • <span class='italique'>De Asse</span>, Guillaume Budé

    De Asse, Guillaume Budé

    Paris Josse Bade, 1527
    The second of Josse Bade's typographic marks.

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  • <span class='italique'>Dictionnarium Latino Gallicum</span>

    Dictionnarium Latino Gallicum

    Roberto Stepheni, 1546.

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  • François I, king of France

    François I, king of France

    Painting by Jean Clouet, oil on wood, 16th century..

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  • <span class='italique'>Thucydide</span> (translated by Claude de Seyssel).

    Thucydide (translated by Claude de Seyssel).

    Title page, Paris, Josse Bade, 1527

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  • <span class='italique'>Duodecim Prophetae Malachias cum commentariis Rabbi David Kimhi</span>

    Duodecim Prophetae Malachias cum commentariis Rabbi David Kimhi

    [Hebrew Bible], 1539. (24x16).
    At the bottom of the page is the inscription Cum privilegio Regis ("with royal privilege")

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  • Geoffroy Tory, <span class='italique'>Champ Fleury</span>

    Geoffroy Tory, Champ Fleury

    1529, f. 8

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  • <span class='italique'>Défense et illustration de la langue francoyse</span>

    Défense et illustration de la langue francoyse

    Joachim Du Bellay, Paris, printed for Arnoul L’Angelier, 1549. Download the document

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  • <span class='italique'>Prologue des Chroniques de France</span>

    Prologue des Chroniques de France

    Paris, Pasquier Bonhomme, 16 january 1476/1477

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  • Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêt, 6 September 1539, feuillet 1 r.; feuillet XX r.

    Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêt, 6 September 1539, feuillet 1 r.; feuillet XX r.

    This ordinance prescribes the use of French for all judicial acts and legal documents.

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  • <span class='italique'>The type founder</span>

    The type founder

    By Jost Amman, plate from Das Ständebuch (Book of Trades), 1568.
    The type founder is pouring molten lead into a matrix. Finished type can be seen in the basket at his feet.

  • <span class='italique'>The punch-cutter</span> by Jost Amman

    The punch-cutter by Jost Amman

    Plate from Das Ständebuch (Book of Trades), 1568. Before the invention of moveable type, xylography (or wood engraving) consisted of tracing a text on a block of wood, and then carving out around the letters in order to set them in relief.

  • <span class='italique'>A paper-maker's workshop</span>

    A paper-maker's workshop

    By Jost Amman, plate from Das Ständebuch (Book of Trades), 1568.

  • <span class='italique'>The printer</span>, by Jost Amman, plate from <span class='italique'>Das Ständebuch</span> (Book of Trades), 1568.

    The printer, by Jost Amman, plate from Das Ständebuch (Book of Trades), 1568.



  • Albrecht Dürer, <span class='italique'>Sujet satirique, dessin à la plume</span>, 20,4x29,8 cm, 1511

    Albrecht Dürer, Sujet satirique, dessin à la plume, 20,4x29,8 cm, 1511

    The central scene represents a printer to the press

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  • Jacques Toussain

    Jacques Toussain

    Lexicon Graecolatinum, Paris, Ch. Guillard, 1552, 2°.
    The register, often printed at the back of a book, provided a list of the book's signatures. The customer, who purchased the book in an unbound state, could thus be sure that all of the parts were present; likewise, the bookbinder could also check that the signatures were in the right order before binding the book.

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  • Upper board of a binding by Geoffroy Tory

    Upper board of a binding by Geoffroy Tory

    Among the ornamentation one can make out Tory's "broken jar" mark.

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  • <span class='italique'>La galerie du Palais</span>

    La galerie du Palais

    Engraving by Abraham Bosse, circa 1638. The Galerie du Palais was an arcade with shops where all sorts of goods were sold, including books. To the left, one can see a bookseller's stall.

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  • Green Morocco leather binding with gilt interlaced decoration and tooling

    Green Morocco leather binding with gilt interlaced decoration and tooling

    This binding was created for Jean Grolier, Jean Picard workshop, circa 1540 for a work by Giovanni Battista Pio, Annotamenta, J.A.P. de Benedictis, 1505

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  • The bookbinder

    The bookbinder

    By Jost Amman, plate from Das Ständebuch (Book of Trades), 1568.

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  • <span class='italique'>Le parcheminier</span>

    Le parcheminier



  • Binding with unicorn decoration.

    Binding with unicorn decoration.

    In: Les aphorismes d’Hippocrate, prince des médecins, Kerver, 1558.

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  • Sunken-cord binding

    Sunken-cord binding

    Sunken-cord binding in brown Morocco leather with arabesque decoration and bearing the coat of arms of Henri II, Paris, Royal bookbinding workshop, circa 1556-1558

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  • <span class='italique'>La Nef des fols du monde</span>

    La Nef des fols du monde

    Sébastien Brandt, Basel, 1494. Woodblock print identified as the work of Albrecht Dürer.

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  • Reading room of the Leyden library in 1610.

    Reading room of the Leyden library in 1610.

    In this engraving by W. Swaenenburgh, after J.C. Wondenus, even though the books are still chained as they were in medieval libraries, the modern concept of the library –a place of both preservation and reading – reflects the humanist ideal of organised access to all types of knowledge. In the library at Leiden, which was completed in 1593, the books were arranged by discipline, and all of the institution's printed books and manuscripts were available to the public.

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  • A copyist

    A copyist

    In: Les Sermons de saint Augustin, Paris, Gering and Rembolt, circa 1498.

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  • <span class='italique'>Danse Macabre</span> by Mattias Huss.

    Danse Macabre by Mattias Huss.

    The first depiction of a printing workshop.

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  • Anonmyous engraving.

    Anonmyous engraving.

    Depicting a printing workshop in the 16th century

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  • Robert Estienne's mark.

    Robert Estienne's mark.

    In: Dictionarium Latino Gallicum, 1546. Robert Estienne chose an olive tree as a sign of recognition of his grandmother, Laure de Montolivet, who was from Provençal, and the motto "Noli altum sapere sed time" (Be not high-minded, but fear").

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  • Geoffroy Tory's printer's mark.

    Geoffroy Tory's printer's mark.

    In: In filiam charissimam… Epitaphia et dialogi. Simon de Colines for Geoffroy Tory, Paris, 1523.

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  • Printer's mark of Sébastien Gryphe

    Printer's mark of Sébastien Gryphe

    In: In canonica apostolorum septem epistolas collatio. iuxta eruditorum sententiarium facto per S. Theologiae Doctorem Claudium Guillaudum Bellijocensem,… Sébastien Gryphe, Lyon, 1543.

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  • André Wechel's printer's mark.

    André Wechel's printer's mark.

    In: Grammaire de P. de La Ramée, lecteur du roi à l’université de Paris, 1573.

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  • <span class='italique'>Liber Receptoris Nationis Alamaniæ Book of Tax</span> [Receivers of the German Nation] for the years 1494 to 1530.

    Liber Receptoris Nationis Alamaniæ Book of Tax [Receivers of the German Nation] for the years 1494 to 1530.

    Illumination depicting Charlemagne, emblematic figure of the German nation (fol. 84 v°).

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  • <span class='italique'>Liber Receptoris Nationis Alamaniæ Book of Tax</span> [Receivers of the German Nation] for the years 1494 to 1530.

    Liber Receptoris Nationis Alamaniæ Book of Tax [Receivers of the German Nation] for the years 1494 to 1530.

    Facing the illumination of Charlemagne, patron of the German Nation, a notice that Master Berthold Rembold, printer-bookseller, originally from the diocese of Strasbourg, assumed the office of Tax Receiver for the German Nation in 1506.

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  • Gering and Rembolt's printer's mark

    Gering and Rembolt's printer's mark

    A mark showing Gering and Rembolt holding the Golden Sun made its first appearance in 1494.

  • <span class='italique'>Heures à l’usage de Rome</span>

    Heures à l’usage de Rome

    Title page illuminated by Étienne Colaud.
    Page of a work co-published by Geoffroy Tory and Simon de Colines, Paris, 16 January 1525, which was given as a wedding present to Robert Estienne and Perrette Bade.

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  • Jacques Toussain

    Jacques Toussain

    Lexicon Graecolatinum, Paris, Charlotte Guillard, 1552, 2°. Préface
    In this preface, the only text signed by the widow Charlotte Guillard, she recounts her career. It concludes with the words: "For fifty years, I have taken care of printing these books, that is to say I push and roll along with me a huge mass of expenses and bother".

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  • Bernardus

    Bernardus

    Opera, Paris, B. Rembolt, 1513, 2°.
    In the lower right-hand part of this engraving, the printer Berthold Rembolt has depicted himself in the company of his young wife Charlotte Guillard. This is one of rare portraits of a woman bookseller from the 16th century.

  • <span class='italique'>Institution de la religion chrétienne</span>

    Institution de la religion chrétienne

    Jean Calvin, Geneva, Jean Crespin, 1560

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  • Edict faict par le roy

    Edict faict par le roy

    Edict faict par le roy, sur certains articles, faictz par la faculté de Theologie de l’uniuersité de Paris, touchans et concernans nostre foy & religion chrestienne, & forme de prescher. Auec le Cathologue des livres censurez… [Edict issued by the king, concerning certain articles by the Faculty of Theology of the University of Paris, touching on and concerning our Christian faith and religion, & form of preaching. With the Catalogue of Censored Books…] Paris, Jean André, 20 July 1545

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  • <span class='italique'>Cathalogue des livres condamnez et censurez par la faculté de théologie de Paris.</span>

    Cathalogue des livres condamnez et censurez par la faculté de théologie de Paris.

    [Catalogue of Books Condemned and Censured by the Paris Faculty of Theology]. Paris, Benoît Prévost for Jean André, 26 August 1544

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  • Antoine Marcourt, Placard against the Catholic mass, Pierre de Vingle, Neuchâtel, 1534.

    Antoine Marcourt, Placard against the Catholic mass, Pierre de Vingle, Neuchâtel, 1534.

    One of the posters from 18 October 1534 written by Antoine Marcourt, a pastor from Neuchatel, and printed in the same city by Pierre de Vingle. It is entitled "Genuine articles concerning the horrible, enormous and intolerable abuses of the Papist mass, invented directly against the holy Last Supper of Our Lord, sole mediator and saviour Jesus Christ."

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  • Robert Estienne: a new concept of lettering. Interview with Hendrik L. Vervliet, 27 April 2011, 3’57

    Robert Estienne: a new concept of lettering. Interview with Hendrik L. Vervliet, 27 April 2011, 3’57



  • The role of Claude Garamont. Interview with Hendrik L. Vervliet, 27 avril 2011, 7’.

    The role of Claude Garamont. Interview with Hendrik L. Vervliet, 27 avril 2011, 7’.



  • Grégoire de Naziance, <span class='italique'>Orationes lectissimae</span>, XVI..

    Grégoire de Naziance, Orationes lectissimae, XVI..

    Venise, Aldus Manutius, 1516. 8°.

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  • Aldus Manutius, <span class='italique'>Institutionum grammaticarum libri quatuor.</span>

    Aldus Manutius, Institutionum grammaticarum libri quatuor.

    Venise, Aldus Manutius, 1514. 4°.

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  • Augustin, <span class='italique'>De Civitate Dei.</span>

    Augustin, De Civitate Dei.

    Subiaco, Sweynheim and Pannartz, 1465. 2°.

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  • Pietro Bembo <span class='italique'>De Aetna</span>

    Pietro Bembo De Aetna

    1495 4° 1st page

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  • Lucanus, <span class='italique'>De Bello Civili</span>

    Lucanus, De Bello Civili

    Lyon, 1504.
    Lyon counterfeit of Aldus Manutius's italic typeface .

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  • Roman alphabet, created by Guillaume Le Bé in Italy between 1546 and 1547.

    Roman alphabet, created by Guillaume Le Bé in Italy between 1546 and 1547.

    Guillaume Le Bé, collection of Hebrew letters. 27 pages of handwritten annotations of the folios (p. 20).

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  • <span class='italique'>In canonicas apostolorum septem epistolas collatio.</span>

    In canonicas apostolorum septem epistolas collatio.

    Luxta eruditorum sententiarum facto per S. Theologiae Doctorem Claudium Guilliaudum Bellijocensem…, Sébastien Gryphe, 1543.

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  • Damian Marafi

    Damian Marafi

    Figure del Vecchio Testamento con versi Toscani, Jean de Tournes, Lyon, 1554. — Title page.

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  • <span class='italique'>Virgilii Maronis Opera</span>, Robert Estienne, 1532

    Virgilii Maronis Opera, Robert Estienne, 1532

    A remarkable work whose title page employs the various font sizes that Robert Estienne created.

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  • <span class='italique'>De figuris sententiarum ac verborum</span>, Robert Estienne, 1530.

    De figuris sententiarum ac verborum, Robert Estienne, 1530.

    One of the first uses of modern roman type, which was available in three sizes by the end of 1530.

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  • <span class='italique'>Champ fleury</span>, by Geoffroy Tory, 1529.

    Champ fleury, by Geoffroy Tory, 1529.

    Presentation of the letter M.

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  • <span class='italique'>La Politique d’Aristote</span>

    La Politique d’Aristote

    Greek manuscript on parchment bound in crimson Moroccan leather.

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  • Different spellings of the name Garamont

    Different spellings of the name Garamont

    Claude Garamond: Archival document (contract for Jehan De Preau apprenticed to Claude Garamont, 22 September 1557). Claude Garamon: Archival document (contract for Jacques Le Bigot apprenticed to Claude Garamont, 13 May 1551), 13 mai 1551, Archives nationales, Min. centr. LXX, 45. Claudio Garamontio: Title page of: Lanspergius (Joannes Justus), Enchiridion militiæ christianæ... Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier, 1545. Claudio Garamŏtio: Title page of: Juvencus (Gaius Vettius Aquilinus), Historia euangelica, versu heroico descripta Ed. Wolfgang Gulden. Jean Barbé, Claude Garamont, Pierre Gaultier, 1545. Claude Garamont: Title page of: L’histoire de la guerre qui fut entre les Peloponnesiens et Atheniens. Trad. Claude de Seyssel. Jean Barbé, Claude Garamont, Pierre Gaultier, 1545.

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  • Arbre généalogique de Claude Garamont

    Arbre généalogique de Claude Garamont

    Fils d’imprimeur, Claude Garamont a pour beau-frère l’imprimeur Pierre Gaultier, frère de sa première femme, Guillemette Gaultier.

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  • Receipt for compensation for an act of aggression committed by Claude Garamont against Catherine Godet, a serving girl of the chaplain of Saint-Benoît-le-Betourné, 5 July 1541.

    Receipt for compensation for an act of aggression committed by Claude Garamont against Catherine Godet, a serving girl of the chaplain of Saint-Benoît-le-Betourné, 5 July 1541.

    Claude Garamont, punch cutter, must pay to Jacques Gault, priest and chaplain of Saint-Benoît-le-Betourné, in compensation for the injuries caused by Claude Garamont to Catherine Godet, a servant to Jacques Gault on the Sunday following the Holy Feast.

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  • Sales contract of matrices by Claude Garamont to Mathurin Du Puy, 6 april 1541

    Sales contract of matrices by Claude Garamont to Mathurin Du Puy, 6 april 1541



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  • Claude Garamont rents a house out on rue Saint-Denis in Paris, June 1552

    Claude Garamont rents a house out on rue Saint-Denis in Paris, June 1552

    30 June 1552. Claude Garamont, punch-cutter, living in the rue des Carmes, tutor of Guillaume Prieur, son of François Prieur, refiner of gold and silver, and Ysabeau Le Fèvre, current wife of C. Garamont, hereby rent, against 40 livres tournois, a house in the rue Saint-Denis, at the sign of the Deer Horn.

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  • Jehan Petit's debt settlement to Claude Garamont, November 1552

    Jehan Petit's debt settlement to Claude Garamont, November 1552

    4 November 1552. Claude Garamont, punch-cutter and type founder, bourgeois of Paris and Jehan Petit, locksmith, residing in the Boulevard de la Porte Saint-Jacques have together totalled the money that Claude Garamont had previously lent Jehan Petit. Petit acknowledges that he owes 55 livres tournois loaned to him by Garamont, and agrees to allow Garamont to be repaid on the rent owed to Petit by the tenants living in his house.

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  • Claude Garamont settles the printer Étienne Mesviere's succession, January 1554.

    Claude Garamont settles the printer Étienne Mesviere's succession, January 1554.

    5 January 1554 (n. st.). Claude Garamont, punch-cutter and type founder, bourgeois of Paris, tutor of Pierre Mesviere, settles the estate of the printer Etienne Mesviere, brother of Pierre, with Jean Bridier, printer and joint heir; he received from J. Bridier twelve livres tournois owed to him by E. Mesviere for the supply of a font.

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  • Claude Garamont and Jacques Lefèvre, his brother in law, sign a financial agreement.

    Claude Garamont and Jacques Lefèvre, his brother in law, sign a financial agreement.

    16 June 1554. Jacques Lefèvre, merchant living in Cluny, heir of the late merchant Guillaume Lefèvre, Paris bourgeois, his father, acknowledges having received from sire Claude Garamont, type founder, Paris bourgeois, his brother-in-law, the sum of 120 livres tournois that was due to him for the transfer of 10 livres tournois in rent.

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  • Estate of Jeanne Lescherye, Claude Garamont's mother-in-law, 1555

    Estate of Jeanne Lescherye, Claude Garamont's mother-in-law, 1555

    30 April 1555. Jacques Lefèvre, merchant living in Cluny, and Claude Garamont, punch-cutter, Paris bourgeois, agree on the subject of the estate of Jeanne Lescherye, mother of Lefèvre and of Ysabeau Lefèvre, wife of Claude Garamont.

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  • Sales contract of materials purchased by Denis Du Vau, 22 january 1556.

    Sales contract of materials purchased by Denis Du Vau, 22 january 1556.



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  • Claude Garamont rents a house in the rue Saint-Denis in Paris, July 1558

    Claude Garamont rents a house in the rue Saint-Denis in Paris, July 1558

    4 July 1558. Claude Garamont, punch-cutter, Paris bourgeois, rents a house in the rue Saint-Denis, at the sign of the Deer Horn, for the sum of 40 livres tournois.

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  • Claude Garamont states that he is the owner of a vineyard in Paris in August 1558.

    Claude Garamont states that he is the owner of a vineyard in Paris in August 1558.

    August 1558. Claude Garamont, punch-cutter, Paris bourgeois, living in the rue des Carmes, at the sign of the Boulle, states that he is the owner, via Ysabeau Lefèvre, his wife, of five quartiers of vineyard, located at the Grange aux Merciers, Paris, inherited from Gilles Levèvre, lieutenant du gué for the city of Paris.

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  • Apprenticeship contract for Paterne Robelot, apprenticed to Claude Garamont, 21 September 1558

    Apprenticeship contract for Paterne Robelot, apprenticed to Claude Garamont, 21 September 1558



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  • Claude Garamont states that he is the owner of a house in the rue Saint-Denis in Paris in 1559.

    Claude Garamont states that he is the owner of a house in the rue Saint-Denis in Paris in 1559.



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  • Apprenticeship contract for Jehan De Preau, apprenticed to Claude Garamont, 22 September 1557

    Apprenticeship contract for Jehan De Preau, apprenticed to Claude Garamont, 22 September 1557



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  • Claude Garamont states that he is the owner of a house in rue Saint-Denis in Paris in 1552.

    Claude Garamont states that he is the owner of a house in rue Saint-Denis in Paris in 1552.

    3 November 1552. Claude Garamont, punch-cutter, living in the rue des Carmes, at the sign of the Boulle, tutor of Guillaume Prieur, states that he is the owner of a house in the rue Saint-Denis, at the sign of the Deer Horn.

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  • Apprenticeship contract for Pierre Legat, apprenticed to Claude Garamont, august 1543.

    Apprenticeship contract for Pierre Legat, apprenticed to Claude Garamont, august 1543.



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  • Sale by Françoise Barbier, wife of Yvon Garamour [Garamont].

    Sale by Françoise Barbier, wife of Yvon Garamour [Garamont].

    Of a pièce de vigne at Picpus, 31 July – 2 October 1528. This recently-discovered archive makes mention of Claude Garamont's father, Yvon, who was a printer.

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  • Inventory of the estate of Claude Garamont's father-in-law, 18 August 1551 (first and last page)

    Inventory of the estate of Claude Garamont's father-in-law, 18 August 1551 (first and last page)

    18 August 1551. Inventory of the estate of Guillaume Lefèvre, sergent royal du guet à cheval for the city of Paris, living in rue de la Mégisserie, across from the Popin water trough, drawn up at the request of his widow Jeanne Lescherye, of Jacques Lefèvre the eldest, merchant in Cluny, of Jacques Lefèvre, priest, theology student at the Université de Paris, of Claude Garamont, royal punch-cutter, and of Isabeau Lefèvre, his wife, children and son-in-law of the deceased (19 f.). Détérioré dans la partie supérieure [tableaux, sculptures, tapisserie, titres de propriété].

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  • Order for the  <span class='italique'>grecs du roi</span>.

    Order for the grecs du roi.

    2 November 1540

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  • Receipt by Robert Estienne

    Receipt by Robert Estienne

    Receipt by Robert Estienne acknowledging receipt of 225 livres tournois that he paid to Claude Garamont as an advance for the punches for the so-called grecs du roi.

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  • David Chambellan, <span class='italique'>Pia et religiosa meditatio in sanctam Iesu Christi crucem et eius vulnera</span>.

    David Chambellan, Pia et religiosa meditatio in sanctam Iesu Christi crucem et eius vulnera.

    Paris, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 16°

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  • Portrait of Claude Garamont.

    Portrait of Claude Garamont.

    Portrait engraved in 1582 by Léonard Gaultier for his Pourtraictz de plusieurs hommes illustres qui ont flory en France depuis l’an 1500 jusques à présent [Portraits of a Number of Famous Men Who Lived in France From 1500 to the Present].

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  • Hebrew type specimen with annotations by Guillaume Le Bé (1545-1592).

    Hebrew type specimen with annotations by Guillaume Le Bé (1545-1592).

    Guillaume Le Bé stated that he cut the punches for these letters in 1551 "for Monsieur Claude Garamond, punch-cutter and engraver of the King's Greek type, after my return to Paris from Italy and Troye; cut in my house in the Rue des Carmes." According to Le Bé, it was a "highly artistic letter, well filed and polished (without wishing to brag), to the satisfaction of one who knows more than me [Claude Garamont]." He added: "Upon the sale of his belongings, Monsieur Christofe Plantain purchased the matrices and moulds, which he took to Antwerp and began printing there. And André Wechel purchased the punches that he transported to Germany."

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  • Apprenticeship contract for Anselme Le Bigot

    Apprenticeship contract for Anselme Le Bigot

    Apprenticeship contract for Anselme Le Bigot, apprenticed to Claude Garamont, 13 May 1551

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  • Sale of a pair of matrices by Claude Garamont to Estienne Mesviere

    Sale of a pair of matrices by Claude Garamont to Estienne Mesviere

    Sale for 50 livres tournois, 18 September 1543.

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  • Diodore de Sicile

    Diodore de Sicile

    L’histoire des successeurs de Alexandre le Grand quelque peu de vies escriptes par Plutharque. Trad. Claude de Seyssel. — Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 16°

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  • Terentius Afer (Publius),  [Comoediæ sex].

    Terentius Afer (Publius), [Comoediæ sex].

    Comment. Aelius Donatus et Giovanni Calfurnio. — Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 16°. Impr. par P. Gaultier ; RENOUARD, III, n° 50.

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  • Juvencus (Gaius Vettius Aquilinus), <span class='italique'>Historia euangelica, versu heroico descripta.</span>

    Juvencus (Gaius Vettius Aquilinus), Historia euangelica, versu heroico descripta.

    Éd. Wolfgang Gulden. [et Pseudo-LACTANTIUS FIRMIANUS, Carmen de passione Domini]. — Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 16°. RENOUARD, III, n° 47.

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  • <span class='italique'>The History of the War between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians.</span>

    The History of the War between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians.

    Trad. Claude de Seyssel. — Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 16°. RENOUARD, III, n° 51.

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  • Cassianus (Johannes), <span class='italique'>De incarnatione Domini Libri VII. iam recens æditi</span> [et S. CYRILLUS ALEXANDRINUS, Sermo de eo quòd verbum deifactum sit homo].

    Cassianus (Johannes), De incarnatione Domini Libri VII. iam recens æditi [et S. CYRILLUS ALEXANDRINUS, Sermo de eo quòd verbum deifactum sit homo].

    Trad. Johannes Œcolampadius. — Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 8°. Suit l’éd. de Bâle (A. Cratander, 1534). — Printed by P. Gaultier for Claude Garamont

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  • Hugues de Saint-Cher, <span class='italique'>Postilla seu diuina Expositio in altos quatuor Euangeliorum apices… Quinta pars.</span>

    Hugues de Saint-Cher, Postilla seu diuina Expositio in altos quatuor Euangeliorum apices… Quinta pars.

    Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier, Thielman II Kerver, Poncet Le Preux, Oudin Petit, Jean de Roigny. 2°. Printed by P. Gaultier after the colophon RENOUARD, III, n° 44

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  • Lanspergius (Joannes Justus), <span class='italique'>Enchiridion militiæ christianæ…</span>

    Lanspergius (Joannes Justus), Enchiridion militiæ christianæ…

    Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 8°.

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  • Hessus (Helius Eobanus), <span class='italique'>Psalterium vniuersum carmine elegiaco redditum atque explicatum</span>

    Hessus (Helius Eobanus), Psalterium vniuersum carmine elegiaco redditum atque explicatum

    Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 16°. Impr. par P. Gaultier. — RENOUARD, III, n° 42.

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  • Portrait of Jean de Gagny

    Portrait of Jean de Gagny

    Jean de Gagny is the kneeling figure depicted as a donor.

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  • Lactantius Firmianus (Lucius Coelius), <span class='italique'>Diuinarum Institutionum libri septem.</span>

    Lactantius Firmianus (Lucius Coelius), Diuinarum Institutionum libri septem.

    [et alia opera et Pseudo-LACTANTIUS FIRMIANUS, Carmen de Dominica resurrectione. Carmen de passione Domini]. — Jean Barbé, Claude Garamond, Pierre Gaultier. 16°.

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  • <span class='italique'>Il primo libro d’architettura</span>, by Sabastiano Serlio

    Il primo libro d’architettura, by Sabastiano Serlio

    Printed by Claude Garamont, 1545. Title page.

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  • Inventaire of Garamont's possessions

    Inventaire of Garamont's possessions

    By Fournier, 1756.

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  • Claude Garamont's will, dated 23 September 1561.

    Claude Garamont's will, dated 23 September 1561.



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  • <span class='italique'>Alphabetum Græcum</span>, Robert Estienne, 1539

    Alphabetum Græcum, Robert Estienne, 1539



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  • <span class='italique'>Alphabetum Græcum</span>

    Alphabetum Græcum

    Robert Estienne, 1543.

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  • <span class='italique'>Alphabetum Græcum</span>, Robert Estienne, 1550.

    Alphabetum Græcum, Robert Estienne, 1550.

    The Alphabetum of 1550 was printed with the three Grecs du roi fonts.

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  • <span class='italique'>Alphabetum Græcum</span>

    Alphabetum Græcum

    Chrétien Wechel, 1545

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  • <span class='italique'>Ecclesiasticae historiae</span>, Eusèbe de Césarée, Paris, Robert Estienne, 1544

    Ecclesiasticae historiae, Eusèbe de Césarée, Paris, Robert Estienne, 1544

    For Eusebius's Histoire ecclesiastique, which was printed with Claude Garamont's new Greek typefaces, Robert Estienne wrote a dedicatory preface to François I: "…he ordered the most talented craftsmen to create characters that were modern and elegant in form. With these characters, the handsomest works, printed with care in many copies, shall find their way into everyone's possession, and we have already given the public a work in the Greek language." Le site des bibliothèques virtuelles humanistes

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  • Manuscript by Angelo Vergezio: Hero of Alexandria, grotto with artificial fountain. .

    Manuscript by Angelo Vergezio: Hero of Alexandria, grotto with artificial fountain. .



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  • Manuscript by Angelo Vergezio: Painted frontispiece, 1564.

    Manuscript by Angelo Vergezio: Painted frontispiece, 1564.



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  • <span class='italique'>Nouum testamentum ex Bibliotheca regia.</span>
Paris, Robert Estienne, 1549 16°

    Nouum testamentum ex Bibliotheca regia. Paris, Robert Estienne, 1549 16°

    Epistle by Robert Estienne pp. 3 and 4; the Gospel of Saint John (in Greek) p. 317

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  • Works in Greek in the catalogues of Robert Estienne. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 3'43

    Works in Greek in the catalogues of Robert Estienne. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 3'43



  • Greek editions in Paris in the 1530s. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 4’38.

    Greek editions in Paris in the 1530s. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 4’38.



  • Greek editions in Paris in the 1540s. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 5'31.

    Greek editions in Paris in the 1540s. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 5'31.



  • <span class='italique'>Alphabetum Graecum</span>, Robert Estienne, 1550, printed with  Grecs du Roi. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 2'

    Alphabetum Graecum, Robert Estienne, 1550, printed with Grecs du Roi. Interview with Geneviève Guilleminot, 8 July 2011, 2'



  • Greek publication by Conrad Néobar, 1540

    Greek publication by Conrad Néobar, 1540



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  • The <span class='italique'>Grecs du roi</span>. Sheet presenting the characters and ligatures, by Franck Jalleau, Imprimerie nationale.

    The Grecs du roi. Sheet presenting the characters and ligatures, by Franck Jalleau, Imprimerie nationale.



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  • Original matrices of Garamont's <span class='italique'>moyen canon</span>.

    Original matrices of Garamont's moyen canon.



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  • Original   Garamont's punches

    Original Garamont's punches

    Original punches from the set purchased by Christophe Plantin from Guillaume Le Bé during the sale of Garamont possessions.

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  • Original matrices, with Greek capitals and fleuron.

    Original matrices, with Greek capitals and fleuron.

    The fleuron is one of the rare decorative elements in Garamont's work.

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  • Matrices of the Saint-Augustin roman created from Garamont's punches.

    Matrices of the Saint-Augustin roman created from Garamont's punches.



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  • Register containing a collection of typefaces sent by Le Bé to Jean Moretus.

    Register containing a collection of typefaces sent by Le Bé to Jean Moretus.

    Register containing a collection of typefaces sent by Le Bé to Jean Moretus. Double canon by Le Bé I

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  • Le Bé-Moretus type specimen, 1598.

    Le Bé-Moretus type specimen, 1598.

    Register containing a collection of typefaces sent by Le Bé to Jean Moretus. The so-called gros canon by Claude Garamont.

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  • Anonymous type specimen of the real 'Parangonne' roman

    Anonymous type specimen of the real "Parangonne" roman

    Attributed to Claude Garamont, ca. 1570

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  • Dexippus, <span class='italique'>In defensionem Praedicamentorum Aristotelis</span>

    Dexippus, In defensionem Praedicamentorum Aristotelis

    Paris M. de Vascosan, 1549.
    Work composed in an italic typeface designed by Claude Garamont in 1545.

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  • List of materials purchased by Christophe Plantin and his 'brother'

    List of materials purchased by Christophe Plantin and his "brother"

    List of materials purchased by Christophe Plantin and his "brother" (Pierre Porret, Plantin's childhood friend and agent in Paris).

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  • Christophe Plantin printing workshop in Antwerp.

    Christophe Plantin printing workshop in Antwerp.

    Interview with L. Vervliet, 27 April 2011, '2’22

  • <span class='italique'>La Manière de tourner en langue françoise les verbes actifz, passifz, gérundifz, supins et participes, item les verbes impersonelz aians termination active ou passive, avec le verbe substantif nommé « sum ».</span>

    La Manière de tourner en langue françoise les verbes actifz, passifz, gérundifz, supins et participes, item les verbes impersonelz aians termination active ou passive, avec le verbe substantif nommé « sum ».

    [By R. Estienne.] Paris: impr. de R. Estienne, 1535.

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  • <span class='italique'>Dictionnaire français-latin</span>, 1549. (30x20).

    Dictionnaire français-latin, 1549. (30x20).



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  • <span class='italique'>Traicté de la Grammaire française</span>

    Traicté de la Grammaire française

    Robert Estienne, Jacques Dupuis & Robert II Estienne, Paris, 1569.

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  • <span class='italique'>Biblia</span>, 1546. (39x26).

    Biblia, 1546. (39x26).



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  • <span class='italique'>Chiromance & Physiognomie par le regard des membres de Lhomme, faire par Ian de Indagine</span>

    Chiromance & Physiognomie par le regard des membres de Lhomme, faire par Ian de Indagine

    Jean I de Tournes, Lyon, 1556.

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  • <span class='italique'>In canonicas apostolorum septem epistolas collatio.</span>

    In canonicas apostolorum septem epistolas collatio.

    Iuxta eruditorum sententiarum facto per S. Theologiae Doctorem Claudium Guilliaudum Bellijocensem, … 1543

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  • <span class='italique'>Summa totius Sacrae Scripturae.</span>

    Summa totius Sacrae Scripturae.

    Decem Dei verba, sive praecepta, Parisiis, ex officina Roberti Stephani M. D. XLII

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  • <span class='italique'>Arias M Benedictus, Humanae Salutis Monum</span>

    Arias M Benedictus, Humanae Salutis Monum

    Anvers, Plantin, 1571 (13x21).

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  • <span class='italique'>Bible polyglotte</span>

    Bible polyglotte

    Anvers, Plantin, 1570, tome 1. Museum Plantin-Moretus [B 65].
    Christophe Plantin's Biblia Sacra was composed with the finest type (including fonts by Le Bé and Guyot)

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  • <span class='italique'>Biblia. Ad vetustsissima exemplaria</span>

    Biblia. Ad vetustsissima exemplaria

    Anvers, Plantin, 1569. (17x11).

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  • <span class='italique'>Guyot type specimen sent to Christophe Plantin </span>

    Guyot type specimen sent to Christophe Plantin

    (Reproduction)

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  • <span class='italique'>Kruydtboeck (herbier) de Mathias de L’Obel</span>

    Kruydtboeck (herbier) de Mathias de L’Obel

    Anvers, Plantin, 1568.
    A handsome illustrated book, emblematic of the learned editions published by Christophe Plantin.

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  • <span class='italique'>Index sive specimen characterum  Christophori Plantini</span>

    Index sive specimen characterum Christophori Plantini

    Anvers, 1567. Title page of original type specimen by Christophe Plantin

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  • Egenolff-Berner type specimen.

    Egenolff-Berner type specimen.

    Frankfurt, 1592. Reproduction, Universität Bibliothek, Frankfurt-am-Main

  • Punches for the <span class='italique'>Grecs du roi</span>

    Punches for the Grecs du roi

    Punches for the Grecs du roi, size 20

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  • Punches for the <span class='italique'>Grecs du roi</span>, size 20.

    Punches for the Grecs du roi, size 20.



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  • Jean Jannon's matrices purchased by Sébastien Cramoisy in 1641.

    Jean Jannon's matrices purchased by Sébastien Cramoisy in 1641.

    24 and 36 point, attributed to Garamont.

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  • Jean Jannon's matrices, purchased from Sébastien Cramoisy in 1641, size 24 and 36, attributed to Garamont.

    Jean Jannon's matrices, purchased from Sébastien Cramoisy in 1641, size 24 and 36, attributed to Garamont.



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  • <span class='italique'>L’Instruction du Chrétien.</span>

    L’Instruction du Chrétien.



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  • <span class='italique'>Espreuve des caractères nouvellement taillez</span>

    Espreuve des caractères nouvellement taillez

    A Sedan, par Ian Iannon, Imprimeur de l’Académie, 1621. [Édition fac-similé The 1621 Specimen of Jean Jannon, Paris & Sedan, designer & engraver..., Edited and introduction by Paul Baujon (Beatrice Warde), Londres, Magg Bros, 1927].

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  • <span class='italique'>Espreuve des caractères nouvellement taillez.</span>

    Espreuve des caractères nouvellement taillez.

    A Sedan, by Ian Iannon, Imprimeur de l’Académie, 1621. [Facsimile edition] The 1621 Specimen of Jean Jannon, Paris & Sedan, designer & engraver..., Edited and introduction by Paul Baujon (Beatrice Warde), London, Magg Bros, 1927].

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  • <span class='italique'>Typographia Regia</span>

    Typographia Regia

    Reproduction by the Imprimerie Nationale. Paris, 1913. Fac-similé.

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  • <span class='italique'>Publii Virgili Maronis Opera</span>

    Publii Virgili Maronis Opera

    Imprimerie Royale, 1641.

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  • JA Comenii, <span class='italique'>Ianva Linguarum</span>

    JA Comenii, Ianva Linguarum

    Elzevier, 1649.

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  • Geraldi Vassiti, <span class='italique'>Velleius Paterculis</span>

    Geraldi Vassiti, Velleius Paterculis

    Elzevier, Leyde, 1639.

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  • Willems, Alphonse, <span class='italique'>Les Elzevier</span>, Bruxelles, Paris, Van Trigt, Labitte, 1880.

    Willems, Alphonse, Les Elzevier, Bruxelles, Paris, Van Trigt, Labitte, 1880.

    Reproduction of a Van Dijck type specimen.

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  • <span class='italique'>Épreuve du neuvième alphabet droit & penché gravé par Philippe Grandjean pour l’Imprimerie royale en 1699.</span>

    Épreuve du neuvième alphabet droit & penché gravé par Philippe Grandjean pour l’Imprimerie royale en 1699.



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  • <span class='italique'>L’Imprimerie royale au Louvre</span>, ink and wash drawing, anonymous, late 17th century.

    L’Imprimerie royale au Louvre, ink and wash drawing, anonymous, late 17th century.



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  • Punch for the <span class='italique'>romain du roi</span> typeface, cut by Philippe Grandjean.

    Punch for the romain du roi typeface, cut by Philippe Grandjean.

    Size 120.

    Credits:
  • Proof of the first alphabet in <span class='italique'>droit et penché</span>, with frames and cartouches.

    Proof of the first alphabet in droit et penché, with frames and cartouches.

    Punch cut by Luce, size 4.

    Credits:
  • Roman Grandjean font printed from plates engraved by Simonneau.

    Roman Grandjean font printed from plates engraved by Simonneau.



    Credits:
  • Plates for <span class='italique'>romain du roi</span> engraved by Simonneau and Grandjean font printed from the plates.

    Plates for romain du roi engraved by Simonneau and Grandjean font printed from the plates.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Les caractères de l’imprimerie</span>

    Les caractères de l’imprimerie

    By Fournier le jeune, 1764, in 8°.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>L’intérieur d’une imprimerie</span>

    L’intérieur d’une imprimerie

    In: Charles Jean François Hénault, Nouvel abrégé de l’histoire de France, Paris, Prault fils, Desaint & Saillant, 1749, in 4°, p. 268.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Les caractères et les vignettes de la fonderie du Sieur Delacolonge</span>

    Les caractères et les vignettes de la fonderie du Sieur Delacolonge

    Les caractères et les vignettes de la fonderie du Sieur Delacolonge, Lyon, 1773.

    Credits:
  • Specimen of Caslon, 1723.

    Specimen of Caslon, 1723.



  • <span class='italique'>Essai de fables nouvelles dédiées au Roi</span>

    Essai de fables nouvelles dédiées au Roi

    Essai suivi de Poésies diverses et d’une épître sur les progrès de l’imprimerie, by Didot fils aîné. In Paris, printed by Franç. Ambr. Diddot the elder, with fonts from Firmin, his second son, 1786, in-12.

    Credits:
  • Proofs of a new font for the Imprimerie Impériale.

    Proofs of a new font for the Imprimerie Impériale.

    In Paris, engraved by Firmin Didot, 1812.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Je suis le véritable père Duchesne, foutre</span>, by Jacques René Hébert.

    Je suis le véritable père Duchesne, foutre, by Jacques René Hébert.



    Credits:
  • Complete type specimen (upper and lowercase) 'Augustaux characters'

    Complete type specimen (upper and lowercase) "Augustaux characters"

    Louis Perrin and Rey, circa 1860..

    Credits:
  • Type specimen for Augustaux

    Type specimen for Augustaux

    Filed with the Bibliothèque Royale, 1846.

    Credits:
  • Pierre Jannet, <span class='italique'>Spécimen des nouveaux caractères destinés à l’impression de la Bibliothèque elzevirienne</span>

    Pierre Jannet, Spécimen des nouveaux caractères destinés à l’impression de la Bibliothèque elzevirienne

    Paris, 1893.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Histoire de l’imprimerie</span>

    Histoire de l’imprimerie

    by Anatole Claudin, Imprimerie nationale, 1900.

    Credits:
  • Punches for 16-point Garamond cut by Jules Hénaffe in 1900.

    Punches for 16-point Garamond cut by Jules Hénaffe in 1900.



    Credits:
  • Characters by Jean Jannon created in the 16th century (18, 24 and 36 point) and characters by Jules Hénaffe created in 1900 (other fonts).

    Characters by Jean Jannon created in the 16th century (18, 24 and 36 point) and characters by Jules Hénaffe created in 1900 (other fonts).



    Credits:
  • Simplified type specimen of various typefaces by the Imprimerie Nationale, 1904.

    Simplified type specimen of various typefaces by the Imprimerie Nationale, 1904.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Parallèlement</span>, by Verlaine and Bonnard

    Parallèlement, by Verlaine and Bonnard

    Paris, Vollard, 1900.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Parallèlement</span>, by Verlaine et Bonnard

    Parallèlement, by Verlaine et Bonnard

    Paris, Vollard, 1900.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Specimen Book and Catalogue</span>

    Specimen Book and Catalogue

    American Type Founders Company, 1923

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Garamond</span>, Stempel foundry, [s; d.].

    Garamond, Stempel foundry, [s; d.].



    Credits:
  • Prospectus for the Berthold Garamond.

    Prospectus for the Berthold Garamond.



    Credits:
  • Garamond type specimen.

    Garamond type specimen.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Page composed in Garamond illustrating an engraving by Larmessin</span>

    Page composed in Garamond illustrating an engraving by Larmessin

    From La Bruyère's Caractères.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Le Caractère Garamont</span>, Deberny and Peignot

    Le Caractère Garamont, Deberny and Peignot

    [ca 1932]

    Credits:
  • Punches for Garamond from the Deberny & Peignot foundry, 1926.

    Punches for Garamond from the Deberny & Peignot foundry, 1926.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Specimen book for the Fonderie Typographique Française</span>

    Specimen book for the Fonderie Typographique Française

    Paris, undated [1st quarter of the 20th century]

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Garamond, a Specimen of Classic Face</span>

    Garamond, a Specimen of Classic Face

    Monotype, 1923

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Specimen Book Linotype Faces</span>

    Specimen Book Linotype Faces

    p. 339, 403, 430, 339, 443, 445, 464, 465. Mergenthaler linotype Company, [ca 1935].

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>An example of Monotype Garamond</span>

    An example of Monotype Garamond

    An example of Monotype Garamond: the publication by the Atelier du Livre d’Art et l’Estampe Imprimerie Nationale for the Grolier Club, on the occasion of the exhibition Printing for Kingdom, Empire, and Republic: Treasures from the Archives of the Imprimerie Nationale, New York 7 December 2011 – 4 February 2012.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Garamond No. 3 specimen</span>

    Garamond No. 3 specimen



    Credits:
  • Garamond specimen by the Ludlow foundry.

    Garamond specimen by the Ludlow foundry.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Garamond Monotype Series 156 specimen</span>.

    Garamond Monotype Series 156 specimen.



    Credits:
  • “The Garamond types”, by Paul Beaujon.

    “The Garamond types”, by Paul Beaujon.

    In : The Fleuron, n° V, 1926.

    Credits:
  • Type specimen of Granjon Linotype.

    Type specimen of Granjon Linotype.



    Credits:
  • Page of the <span class='italique'>Times</span> composed in Times New Roman.

    Page of the Times composed in Times New Roman.



    Credits:
  • Type specimen for Plantin Monotype, created in 1913 by Frank Hinman Pierpont (1860–1937), based on matrices from the Museum Plantin-Moretus.

    Type specimen for Plantin Monotype, created in 1913 by Frank Hinman Pierpont (1860–1937), based on matrices from the Museum Plantin-Moretus.



    Credits:
  • Garamond Simoncini type specimen.

    Garamond Simoncini type specimen.



    Credits:
  • 'Sabon regroupement' type specimen.

    "Sabon regroupement" type specimen.



    Credits:
  • Garaldus type specimen.

    Garaldus type specimen.



    Credits:
  • Jan Tschichold, Sabon antiqua

    Jan Tschichold, Sabon antiqua



    Credits:
  • ITC Garamond type specimen.

    ITC Garamond type specimen.



    Credits:
  • Galliard type specimen.

    Galliard type specimen.



    Credits:
  • Berthold Garamond type specimen.

    Berthold Garamond type specimen.



    Credits:
  • Garamond (ITC), U&lc

    Garamond (ITC), U&lc

    1985, n°12.

    Credits:
  • Advertising  'Think different' in Apple Garamond.

    Advertising "Think different" in Apple Garamond.



    Credits:
  • Gustave Flaubert, <span class='italique'>Œuvres</span>

    Gustave Flaubert, Œuvres

    T. I, Gallimard, collection "La Pléiade", Paris, 2003.
    Work set in Peignot Garamond.

    Credits:
  • The Vox classification.

    The Vox classification.

    Sketch by Maximilien Vox of his typeface classification, created in 1963. Document published in Dossier Vox, Rémy Magermans, 1976, p. 255. Reproduced with the kind permission of André Jammes.

    Credits:
  • Advertising using <span class='italique'>Adobe Garamond</span>

    Advertising using Adobe Garamond

    From the brochure Adobe Garamond, 1989, p. 13

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Garamond Premier Pro: a contemporary adaptation</span> by Robert Slimbach

    Garamond Premier Pro: a contemporary adaptation by Robert Slimbach

    2005, p.2, 26, 36, 37

    Credits:
  • Sabon Next type specimen.

    Sabon Next type specimen.



    Credits:
  • Comparison of the Le Bé II and the Sabon Next type specimens.

    Comparison of the Le Bé II and the Sabon Next type specimens.



    Credits:
  • Sabon Next references.

    Sabon Next references.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>The revolution won’t be set in Garamond</span>

    The revolution won’t be set in Garamond

    "The revolution won’t be set in Garamond" In: Slanted, nº 11, 2010.

    Credits:
  • Lead-type composition held together with string before a proof print.

    Lead-type composition held together with string before a proof print.



    Credits:
  • Gutenberg in his workshop

    Gutenberg in his workshop

    Painting, 19th century

    Credits:
  • Steel punches (upper left),  copper matrices (centre) and lead type.

    Steel punches (upper left), copper matrices (centre) and lead type.

    Caractère Marcellin-Legrand

    Credits:
  • Type case (ornamental) characters

    Type case (ornamental) characters



    Credits:
  • Mould for casting type.

    Mould for casting type.



    Credits:
  • Punches for an italic Didot.

    Punches for an italic Didot.



    Credits:
  • Typometers, typographic measuring tools

    Typometers, typographic measuring tools



    Credits:
  • Plate for <span class='italique'>romain du roi</span> by the Bignon Committee.

    Plate for romain du roi by the Bignon Committee.

    In: La réforme de la typographie royale sous L. XIV. Le Granjean

    Credits:
  • Title page from Martin-Dominique Fertel's manual  <span class='italique'>La science pratique de l’imprimerie.</span>

    Title page from Martin-Dominique Fertel's manual La science pratique de l’imprimerie.

    Saint-Omer, 1723.

    Credits:
  • Plates from  <span class='italique'>Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers</span>, by Diderot and d’Alembert on printing.

    Plates from Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, by Diderot and d’Alembert on printing.

    Printing workshop

    Credits:
  • Plate from  <span class='italique'>Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers</span>,  by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    Plate from Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    View of the buildings of the Manufacture de l’Anglée, near Montargis

    Credits:
  • Plate from <span class='italique'>Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers</span>, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    Plate from Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    "Cuve à ouvrer"

    Credits:
  • Plate from <span class='italique'>Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers</span>, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    Plate from Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    "Colage"

    Credits:
  • Plate from <span class='italique'>Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers</span>, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    Plate from Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    "Étendage"

    Credits:
  • Plate from <span class='italique'>Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers</span>, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    Plate from Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, by Diderot and d’Alembert, on paper-making.

    "La salle et machine qui fait aller le marteau".

    Credits:
  • Stereotypes of images

    Stereotypes of images



    Credits:
  • Wood engraving based on a Gustave Doré illustration for Rabelais <span class='italique'>Œuvres</span> published by Garnier, Paris, 1873..

    Wood engraving based on a Gustave Doré illustration for Rabelais Œuvres published by Garnier, Paris, 1873..

    Paris, 1873.
    Bois gravé (à gauche) et copie galvano (à droite).

    Credits:
  • Header for the <span class='italique'>Le Républicain Lorrain</span> newspaper, type composition (bottom) and stereotyped cliché (top).

    Header for the Le Républicain Lorrain newspaper, type composition (bottom) and stereotyped cliché (top).



    Credits:
  • Polytyped letters

    Polytyped letters



    Credits:
  • Winkler, Fallert & Cie Stereotype, Berne, undated (circa 1910).

    Winkler, Fallert & Cie Stereotype, Berne, undated (circa 1910).



    Credits:
  • Stereotyping components (printing French lottery documents).

    Stereotyping components (printing French lottery documents).

    Type composition

    Credits:
  • Lithograph printing and intaglio printing.

    Lithograph printing and intaglio printing.

    Lithograph by P. Bineteau.

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Nouvel album d’enseignes à l’usage des peintres par  L. Ramade, professeur à l’école Sieber</span>, location and date unknown.

    Nouvel album d’enseignes à l’usage des peintres par L. Ramade, professeur à l’école Sieber, location and date unknown.

    Colour lettering, lithograph printing.

    Credits:
  • Colour lettering. Ferdinand Sère, interior placard for various card, circa 1840.

    Colour lettering. Ferdinand Sère, interior placard for various card, circa 1840.



    Credits:
  • L.A.C. Hodebert (ou Haudebert), <span class='italique'>Le Lithographe</span>, oil on canvas, 1898.

    L.A.C. Hodebert (ou Haudebert), Le Lithographe, oil on canvas, 1898.



    Credits:
  • A lithography workshop.

    A lithography workshop.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Caractères de fantaisie</span>, Laurent & Deberny foundry, 1862

    Caractères de fantaisie, Laurent & Deberny foundry, 1862



    Credits:
  • Operator using a pantograph to cut a punch.

    Operator using a pantograph to cut a punch.



    Credits:
  • Type-casting machine.

    Type-casting machine.



    Credits:
  • Machine for cutting punches using a pantograph

    Machine for cutting punches using a pantograph



    Credits:
  • A 19th-century type foundry.

    A 19th-century type foundry.



    Credits:
  • Linotype machines.

    Linotype machines.

    Linotype machines were quickly adopted by daily newspapers. Typesetting workshops generally had several, including some held in reserve in case of breakdowns.

    Credits:
  • Linotype blocks of text.

    Linotype blocks of text.



    Credits:
  • Linotype machine

    Linotype machine



  • Linotype machine.

    Linotype machine.

    © Thinkstock

  • Linotype machine.

    Linotype machine.

    In: Catalogue général des machines of the Société Linotype française L&M, Paris, date unknown.

    Credits:
  • Duplexed Linotype matrix.

    Duplexed Linotype matrix.



    Credits:
  • Monotype in the Imprimerie Nationale.

    Monotype in the Imprimerie Nationale.

    Monotype perforated strip.

    Credits:
  • Monotype matrix-plate.

    Monotype matrix-plate.



    Credits:
  • Cast Monotype characters

    Cast Monotype characters



    Credits:
  • Monotype typecaster.

    Monotype typecaster.



    Credits:
  • Monotype keyboard/perforator.

    Monotype keyboard/perforator.



    Credits:
  • Administrative document composed on a typewriter in 1936.

    Administrative document composed on a typewriter in 1936.



    Credits:
  • Top, variable-width alphabet (Times).

    Top, variable-width alphabet (Times).

    Bottom, fixed-width alphabet (Courrier). The differences are particularly marked in narrow letters such as i, j, and l, and wide letters like m and w.

  • Coxhead justifying typewriter

    Coxhead justifying typewriter

    US, 1950s.

    Credits:
  • Oliver typewriter

    Oliver typewriter



    Credits:
  • Font imitating typewriter letters (including strikeouts and corrections).

    Font imitating typewriter letters (including strikeouts and corrections).

    Type specimen, Warnery foundry, date unknown.

    Credits:
  • Diagramme of how telecomposition worked.

    Diagramme of how telecomposition worked.



  • Teletypesetter operator (or electrotypography).

    Teletypesetter operator (or electrotypography).



  • Monophoto matrix holder.

    Monophoto matrix holder.



    Credits:
  • Diagram showing the first-generation phototypesetting process (using a Linotype machine).

    Diagram showing the first-generation phototypesetting process (using a Linotype machine).



    Credits:
  • French-made Lumitype 100 keyboard and photo unit.

    French-made Lumitype 100 keyboard and photo unit.



    Credits:
  • Lumitype disk.

    Lumitype disk.



    Credits:
  • Characters on film.

    Characters on film.



    Credits:
  • Advertising for the Photon.

    Advertising for the Photon.



    Credits:
  • The Monophoto machine, a first-generation phototypesetter (added onto a Monotype machine).

    The Monophoto machine, a first-generation phototypesetter (added onto a Monotype machine).



    Credits:
  • Diagram showing the phototypesetting process.

    Diagram showing the phototypesetting process.



    Credits:
  • The first third-generation phototypesetter.

    The first third-generation phototypesetter.

    In third-generation phototypesetting, fonts are stored and manipulated in algorithm form.

    Credits:
  • Computerised typesetting installation at Computaprint.

    Computerised typesetting installation at Computaprint.

    London, 1940s.

    Credits:
  • Garamond Stempel, 72 point, pixelated and blown up.

    Garamond Stempel, 72 point, pixelated and blown up.



    Credits:
  • Sheets of partially-used transfer letters.

    Sheets of partially-used transfer letters.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Caractère Neutral</span> of the  project Letterlabor, 2005.

    Caractère Neutral of the project Letterlabor, 2005.

    The goal of the Neutral project is to create a typeface that was totally "neutral" and universal. Its design was based on the most commonly-used typefaces today (Times, Helvetica, Univers, Franklin Gothic etc.).
    For more, see…

    Credits:
  • Mecanorama's catalogue of transfer letters.

    Mecanorama's catalogue of transfer letters.



    Credits:
  • Letraset catalogue, Montreuil, 1986. MIL, SDD 2655.

    Letraset catalogue, Montreuil, 1986. MIL, SDD 2655.

    Advertising inside the catalogue

    Credits:
  • Daisywheel printhead for a word processing system (1980s).

    Daisywheel printhead for a word processing system (1980s).



    Credits:
  • Box for Apple's word processing programme MacWrite.

    Box for Apple's word processing programme MacWrite.



    Credits:
  • Box for Microsoft Word

    Box for Microsoft Word



    Credits:
  • Disquettes.

    Disquettes.



    Credits:
  • Mac Classic computer, with keyboard and mouse.

    Mac Classic computer, with keyboard and mouse.



    Credits:
  • Disquettes for the Macintosh computer.

    Disquettes for the Macintosh computer.



    Credits:
  • U&lc, Type transformation, Wilmington (Massachusetts), 1997.

    U&lc, Type transformation, Wilmington (Massachusetts), 1997.



    Credits:
  • Packaging for Adobe Photoshop software, 1989.

    Packaging for Adobe Photoshop software, 1989.



    Credits:
  • First page of Scribus DTP software (freeware).

    First page of Scribus DTP software (freeware).



  • Cover of book about DTP typography and layout.

    Cover of book about DTP typography and layout.

    François Richaudeau, Musée de l’Imprimerie de Lyon, SDD 2303.

  • Comparison of Helvetica (in black) and Arial (in red).

    Comparison of Helvetica (in black) and Arial (in red).

    Arial is a cheaper version of Helvetica, which it largely copies, adapted to on-screen reading.

  • Clip. Artist: Alex Gopher Title: The Child Réalistation : H5 (A. Bardou-Jacquet & L. Houplain)

    Clip. Artist: Alex Gopher Title: The Child Réalistation : H5 (A. Bardou-Jacquet & L. Houplain)

    1999 Production : Le Village.

    Credits:
  • Plate from the Unicode consortium for Deseret.

    Plate from the Unicode consortium for Deseret.

    Deseret is a phonetic alphabet developed by a group of Mormon pastors in the late 19th century, under the leadership of Brigham Young. It was intended to be a more functional way to write the English language. http://www.unicode.org/charts/

    Credits:
  • Plate from the Unicode consortium for Devanagari.

    Plate from the Unicode consortium for Devanagari.

    Devanagari, although not well known in the West, is one of the principal writing systems of India. It is used to transcribe several languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Nepalese and Marathi. http://www.unicode.org/charts/

    Credits:
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Latvian, Lithuanian and Esperanto.

    Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Latvian, Lithuanian and Esperanto.

    In: The modern suite, Shintype, Toronto, 2008.

    Credits:
  • Jan Tschichold's Sabon, in its digital cyrillic version (Alexei Chekulaev, 1996).

    Jan Tschichold's Sabon, in its digital cyrillic version (Alexei Chekulaev, 1996).

    Linotype FontExplorer 1.5, catalogue, s.d.

    Credits:
  • Plate from the Unicode consortium for Shavian.

    Plate from the Unicode consortium for Shavian.

    Shavian is an English phonetic alphabet created by Ronald Kingsley Read, and named after George Bernard Shaw, who had decreed the principals that led to its creation: it should 1) have a maximum of 40 letters, 2) be as phonetic as possible and 3) bear no resemblance to a Latin alphabet. http://www.unicode.org/charts/

    Credits:
  • Digital Greek version of Times.

    Digital Greek version of Times.

    Bernd Holthusen, Scangraphic digital type collection, vol. II, Scangraphic DR. Böger GMBH, Wedel bei Hamburg, 1985.

    Credits:
  • Some of the Garamonds available from the web site Myfonts.

    Some of the Garamonds available from the web site Myfonts.

    See

    Credits:
  • One of many glyphs belonging to Garamond Premier Pro.

    One of many glyphs belonging to Garamond Premier Pro.



    Credits:
  • Roselyne and Michel Besnard, preparatory sketch for the font Mickros.

    Roselyne and Michel Besnard, preparatory sketch for the font Mickros.

    Hand-drawn ampersat, with small tengents for positioning the Bezier curves.

    Credits:
  • Adobe Type Library packaging

    Adobe Type Library packaging



    Credits:
  • Digitisation of Garamond Simoncini.

    Digitisation of Garamond Simoncini.

    At left, True Type curves. At right, Bezier curves. Font: Garamond Simoncini.

  • The Monotype Garamond

    The Monotype Garamond

    Garamond fonts (here, Garamond Monotype) top the list of typographic "classics". Given its slender, generous design and its petit œil (small lowercase in comparison with the capital letters), Garamond Monotype seems to be sparing with ink…See the document

    Credits:
  • Designing characters.

    Designing characters.

    Interview with Philippe Apeloig, 12 juillet 2011, 3’

  • Garamond

    Garamond

    Interview with Philippe Apeloig, 12 juillet 2011, 6’

  • Interview with Alice Savoie.

    Interview with Alice Savoie.

    29 March 2011, 3’.

  • Interview with Malou Verlomme

    Interview with Malou Verlomme

    6 May 2011, 4’

  • Garamond: a long lineage.

    Garamond: a long lineage.

    Interview with Matthieu Cortat, 29 March 2011, 3’30.

  • Garamond in the 16th, 20th and 21st centuries.

    Garamond in the 16th, 20th and 21st centuries.

    Interview with Matthieu Cortat, 29 March 2011, 3’..

  • Designing contemporary typefaces..

    Designing contemporary typefaces..

    Interview with Pierre Di Sciullo, 6 avril 2011, 4’14.

  • What is the truth about Garamond?

    What is the truth about Garamond?

    Interview with Pierre Di Sciullo, 6 avril 2011, 4’03.

  • Gararond, an homage to Garamond.

    Gararond, an homage to Garamond.

    Interview with Pierre Di Sciullo, 6 April 2011, 2’27.

  • The genesis of Gararond (1) .

    The genesis of Gararond (1) .

    Interview with Pierre Di Sciullo, 6 avril 2011, 1’35.

  • The genesis of Gararond (2) .

    The genesis of Gararond (2) .

    Interview with Pierre Di Sciullo, 6 avril 2011, 3’48

  • The discovery of Garamond.

    The discovery of Garamond.

    Interview with Xavier Dupré, 6 May 2011, 1’55.

  • Designing a Garamond today.

    Designing a Garamond today.

    Interview with Xavier Dupré, 6 May 2011, 4’39.

  • The <span class='italique'>Grecs du roi</span>. Interview with Franck Jalleau, Imprimerie nationale, 21 April 2011, 1'38

    The Grecs du roi. Interview with Franck Jalleau, Imprimerie nationale, 21 April 2011, 1'38



  • Garamond, a part of world heritage.

    Garamond, a part of world heritage.

    Interview with Franck Jalleau, 21 April 2011, 0’54.

  • The rehabilitation of Garamond.

    The rehabilitation of Garamond.

    Interview with Franck Jalleau, 21 April 2011, 2'50.

  • Rehabilitating typefaces at the Imprimerie Nationale.

    Rehabilitating typefaces at the Imprimerie Nationale.

    Interview with Franck Jalleau, 21 April 2011, 3'11.

  • Interview with Jean-Baptiste Levée.

    Interview with Jean-Baptiste Levée.

    19 April 2011, 2'50.

  • Encountering Garamond.

    Encountering Garamond.

    Interview with Muriel Paris, 4 July 2011, 3’20.

  • The Garamond renaissance in the 1990s.

    The Garamond renaissance in the 1990s.

    Interview with Muriel Paris, 4 July 2011, 3’47.

  • Interview with Jean Francois Porchez.

    Interview with Jean Francois Porchez.

    4 July 2011, 1’18.

  • What is Garamond?

    What is Garamond?

    Interview with Jean Francois Porchez, 4 July 2011, 2’44.

  • Sabon Next (1)

    Sabon Next (1)

    Interview with Jean Francois Porchez, 4 July 2011.

  • Sabon Next (2).

    Sabon Next (2).

    Interview with Jean Francois Porchez, 4 July 2011.

  • Sabon Next (3).

    Sabon Next (3).

    Interview with Jean Francois Porchez, 4 July 2011.

  • Garamond, or the invention of typography.

    Garamond, or the invention of typography.

    Interview with Mathieu Réguer, 23 February 2011, 3’ 57’’.

  • The identity of a character.

    The identity of a character.

    Interview with Mathieu Réguer, 23 February 2011, 3 12’’.

  • Capucine

    Capucine

    A family for book publishing and packaging.

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  • Freddy

    Freddy

    A multi-script font created for a children’s television channel.

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  • Ysobel

    Ysobel

    A large family of characters created for book publishing by Alice Savoie and Robin Nicholas.

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  • Camille typeface

    Camille typeface



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  • Ecam typeface

    Ecam typeface



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  • Personal composition with Ecam.

    Personal composition with Ecam.



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  • Ficus typeface.

    Ficus typeface.



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  • Lorraine, typographic character, 2005.

    Lorraine, typographic character, 2005.



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  • Octobre, typographic character, 1994

    Octobre, typographic character, 1994



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  • <span class='italique'>Les Bibliothèques au défi de la communication</span>

    Les Bibliothèques au défi de la communication

    Association des bibliothécaires de France (ABF), 2011, affiche, 118 x 175 cm.
    Fonte : Abf

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  • <span class='italique'>Geoffroy Tory, graphiste avant la lettre</span>

    Geoffroy Tory, graphiste avant la lettre

    Musée national de la Renaissance, Écouen, 2011, exhibition poster, 118 x 175 cm.
    Font: création + Berthold Akzidenz Grotesk

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  • Conservatoire national supérieur d’art dramatique (CNSAD), brochures, 11 x 15 cm.

    Conservatoire national supérieur d’art dramatique (CNSAD), brochures, 11 x 15 cm.

    Font: Sabon Promotion 1999

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  • Collection “Exquis d’écrivains”.

    Collection “Exquis d’écrivains”.

    Font: Galliard, 11 x 17,5 cm. Denis Grozdanovitch, Minuscules extases, 2008

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  • <span class='italique'>Octobre ouvre la saison en musique</span>,  Octobre in Normandy

    Octobre ouvre la saison en musique, Octobre in Normandy

    1995, poster, 118 x 175 cm.
    Font: Octobre

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  • <span class='italique'>Typo/ Typé. Affiches de Philippe Apeloig</span>

    Typo/ Typé. Affiches de Philippe Apeloig

    Musée d’Art Russe, Kiev, 2005, affiche, 118 x 175 cm.
    Font: Lorraine

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  • Bonesana, font.

    Bonesana, font.



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  • Henry, font

    Henry, font



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  • Liberté

    Liberté

    Workshop with Dutch typographers from Underware.

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  • Stockmar, font.

    Stockmar, font.



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  • Stuart, font.

    Stuart, font.



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  • Tristram, font.

    Tristram, font.



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  • Signage created by the Atelier Pierre Di Sciullo for the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Richelieu site.

    Signage created by the Atelier Pierre Di Sciullo for the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Richelieu site.

    "This signage was created to accompany restoration work at the historic site of the BNF, and everything associated with it: the move to the new site, transfers, shuttles, moving of departments, etc. Outside, the work on the corners provides a strong signal about the change in the building's entrance. Inside, the elements remained stable for the first five years of phase 1. The signage is based on an original typeface and a photo story shot by Myr Muratet showing the reality of the work underway. The major implantation points are the volumes that provide an echo for these principles." Pierre Di Sicullo

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  • Gararond by Pierre di Sciullo.

    Gararond by Pierre di Sciullo.



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  • Minimum

    Minimum

    "The matrix for this series, Minimum for the screen, was designed pixel by pixel using only verticals and horizontals. On this basis, a number of high-definition variations were designed starting in 1988. A few variations were sold, and the rest are in the designer's toolbox. Minimum's dropped initials place the lowercase versions in the eyes of the capitals and vice versa. The Minimum serif incorporates extensions that result from the dynamism of each character, unrelated to the alignment of now-obsolete lead type letters." Pierre Di Sciullo

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  • Renaissance

    Renaissance

    "Renaissance is a contemporary interpretation of the Université Garamond from 1540. Its serifs are minimal but curved to provide a good contrast, and their dissymmetry adds playfulness and takes the face out of the book-printing world. The main proportions – long ascenders and descenders and capitals that are not particularly tall – are characteristic of French typography of the time, and ensure good readability." Pierre Di Sciullo

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  • Absara typeface.

    Absara typeface.

    (from the Focus FF Absara fascicule).

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  • Angkoon, typeface.

    Angkoon, typeface.



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  • Masala, typeface.

    Masala, typeface.



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  • Personal compositions by Xavier Dupré in Megano.

    Personal compositions by Xavier Dupré in Megano.



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  • Parango, typeface.

    Parango, typeface.



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  • Sanuk, typeface.

    Sanuk, typeface.



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  • Personal composition in Yoga.

    Personal composition in Yoga.



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  • Garamont, unpublished, in development.t

    Garamont, unpublished, in development.t



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  • SIPAR Apsara typeface.

    SIPAR Apsara typeface.

    Consonants, consonant feet, vowels, complete vowels, numbers & other characters.

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  • Personal compositions in Malaga.

    Personal compositions in Malaga.



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  • Région Bretagne, typographic characters (commission)

    Région Bretagne, typographic characters (commission)

    Narrow version

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  • Personal composition in Vista Sans

    Personal composition in Vista Sans



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  • Vista Slab used in a brochure.

    Vista Slab used in a brochure.



  • Carrefour Origin typeface

    Carrefour Origin typeface



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  • Cogito typeface.

    Cogito typeface.



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  • Dogon typeface

    Dogon typeface



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  • Enfantine typeface

    Enfantine typeface



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  • Gemelli typeface

    Gemelli typeface



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  • Panorama typeface

    Panorama typeface



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  • <span class='italique'>Le Petit Manuel de composition typographique</span> by Muriel Paris, version 3

    Le Petit Manuel de composition typographique by Muriel Paris, version 3



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  • Type specimen for Sabon Next

    Type specimen for Sabon Next

    A typeface by Jean François Porchez, issued by Linotype (cover)

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  • Special issue of  <span class='italique'>Signes</span>

    Special issue of Signes

    Devoted to visual identity via the mail.

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  • Apoline PTF typeface.

    Apoline PTF typeface.



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  • Ardoise PTF typeface.

    Ardoise PTF typeface.



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  • Le Monde typeface.

    Le Monde typeface.



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  • Robert Louis Stevenson, <span class='italique'>Virginibus puerisque</span>

    Robert Louis Stevenson, Virginibus puerisque

    Allia, 2003
    "A good typeface is not seen, it is read. It should carry the words and highlight them, but its design should never distract the reader from the meaning contained in them. It must be the best possible vector for the message enclosed within the words. Everyone at Allia is aware of this. This is why, for thirty years, we have remained true to a typography that, after much experimentation, seems to us the best, for its beauty, its richness and its legibility."

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  • Henry Bauchau, <span class='italique'>Le Boulevard périphérique</span>

    Henry Bauchau, Le Boulevard périphérique

    Actes Sud, janvier 2008.
    The book is set in ITCgaramond, as are all novels published by Actes Sud. Agaramond is used for essays. "From the very beginning, Actes Sud has set most of its books in Garamond. The choice of this face is based on the nobility and the generosity of its design, which makes for a pleasant and fluid reading experience. We wish to provide the reader with the best possible conditions for discovering a text and to best serve that which was written with talent."

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  • Dorny / Michel Butor <span class='italique'>Caractères</span>

    Dorny / Michel Butor Caractères

    Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1993, 28 p. ISBN : 2-7433-0136-8

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  • <span class='italique'>Dictionnaire encyclopédique du livre</span>, under dir. of Pascal Fouché

    Dictionnaire encyclopédique du livre, under dir. of Pascal Fouché

    Paris, Cercle de la librairie 1989-1991 .
    Garamond was used for the Dictionnaire encyclopédique du livre (pages 339 and 340 of volume 2 are devoted to Garamond – the typeface – and to Claude Garamont), published by Cercle de la Librairie with graphic designer Alain Meylan. For the designers of the book, it was a reference to Histoire de l’Édition française, for which Pierre Faucheux had himself chosen Garamond .

    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Histoire de l’édition française</span>, Roger Chartier and Henri-Jean Martin, (eds.).

    Histoire de l’édition française, Roger Chartier and Henri-Jean Martin, (eds.).

    Paris, Cercle de la librairie, 1989-1991.
    Pierre Faucheux designed the layout of this four-volume work that was set in Garamond. Pages 356–358 of volume IV, chapter La création typographique des Français by René Ponot.

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  • Raffi Kaiser / Kenneth White, <span class='italique'>Le Livre des roches et des nuages</span>

    Raffi Kaiser / Kenneth White, Le Livre des roches et des nuages

    Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1994, 26 triptyques ISBN : 2-11-081188-9

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  • Publication by Monsieur Toussaint Louverture in the Garamond of Robert Slimbach.

    Publication by Monsieur Toussaint Louverture in the Garamond of Robert Slimbach.



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  • Metro station Parvis de Saint-Gilles in Brussels.

    Metro station Parvis de Saint-Gilles in Brussels.



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  • Concorde metro station

    Concorde metro station



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  • Metro station Parque in Lisbon.

    Metro station Parque in Lisbon.



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  • Metro station Siquiera Campos in the Vidigal favela.

    Metro station Siquiera Campos in the Vidigal favela.



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  • Metro station Universitetet in Stockholm

    Metro station Universitetet in Stockholm



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  • <span class='italique'>Espace Typographie</span> #1  workshop with Jérôme Knebusch, 2009.

    Espace Typographie #1 workshop with Jérôme Knebusch, 2009.



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  • <span class='italique'>Espace Typographie</span> #3 workshop with Elamine Maecha.

    Espace Typographie #3 workshop with Elamine Maecha.



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  • Typeface by Estelle Bizet, 2010.

    Typeface by Estelle Bizet, 2010.



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  • Workshop with Alejandro Lo Celso, 2011.

    Workshop with Alejandro Lo Celso, 2011.



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  • <span class='italique'>Messine</span> Typeface

    Messine Typeface

    Evolution of Messine (titrage Salon), Typeface by the École Supérieure d'Art de Lorraine, designed for titles in the periodical Le Salon of the I.D.E. research centre, within the context of a workshop with Alejandro Lo Celso, 2011.

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  • Publication <span class='italique'>Metzbau</span>, 2009.

    Publication Metzbau, 2009.

    Exhibition in homage of Kurt Schwitters. Centre Pompidou-Metz co-production, 2009.

    Credits:
  • Publication <span class='italique'>Metzbau</span>, 2009.

    Publication Metzbau, 2009.

    Exhibition in homage of Kurt Schwitters. Centre Pompidou-Metz co-production, 2009.

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  •  Typeface by Maxime Le Moing, 2010.

    Typeface by Maxime Le Moing, 2010.



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  • Typeface with self-printing by Audrey Pereira, 2011.

    Typeface with self-printing by Audrey Pereira, 2011.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Pause</span>. Léa Siat's bench, 2010.

    Pause. Léa Siat's bench, 2010.



    Credits:
  • Milosz : a font by Damien Collot

    Milosz : a font by Damien Collot

    The creation of Milosz began in November 2009; the research and practice required for its development were supported and helped by the teaching staff and participants in ESAD's post-graduate programme Typography and Language. However, help came from an unexpected direction: an italic Garamond used for L’histoire des successeurs de Alexandre le Grand. This book, in the collections of the Bibliothèque Louis Aragon, was printed in Paris for Jean Barbé and Claude Garamont in 1545. Detailed examination of the origins and evolutions of italics in the 16th century provided a basis for situating it and understanding formal issues. For Mingus, this helped shift attention to the creation of an italic. What sets it apart is that it provides a dynamic rhythm and a tension that invigorates the text without accelerating it. There are four Mingus styles: an italic and a roman in both serif and sans serif versions. Bold versions are under development.

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  • Typography workshop at the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens.

    Typography workshop at the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens.



    Credits:
  • Typography workshop at the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens.

    Typography workshop at the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens.



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  • Interview with Jean-Philippe Bazin

    Interview with Jean-Philippe Bazin

    Jean-Philippe Bazin taught at the Atelier National de Création Typographique in the 1990s and 2000s.

  • Interview with Roxane Jubert

    Interview with Roxane Jubert

    Roxane Jubert is a former ANRT student.

  • Exhibition by the 923A collective, Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts, Besançon, February 2011.

    Exhibition by the 923A collective, Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts, Besançon, February 2011.

    An initiative of Roseline Cunin, Arnaud Wink & Jérémy Joncheray, members of the collective.

    Credits:
  • Exhibition Ultralight by Harmen Liemburg / March 2011 / ERBA Besançon

    Exhibition Ultralight by Harmen Liemburg / March 2011 / ERBA Besançon

    Harmen Liemburg, a graphic artist and printer has designed an extremely compact travelling show, which travels around the world in a single crate. It was presented in Besançon during the school's Open House days. The playful assembly of the show was carried out by the students.

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  • Analog workshop with students from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens, November 2010–April 2011.

    Analog workshop with students from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens, November 2010–April 2011.

    The session began in Amiens with a workshop on type design, based on poster characters from the 19th century. It continued in Besançon, where digital typefaces were carved in wood, using a laser engraving tool. 12 students from Amiens came to Besançon for a week, and printed their type specimens on the school's printing presses.

    Credits:
  • Analog workshop with students from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens, November 2010 – April 2011.

    Analog workshop with students from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Amiens, November 2010 – April 2011.



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  • Specimen workshop with Damien Gautier, 5-7 April 2011.

    Specimen workshop with Damien Gautier, 5-7 April 2011.

    Concurrent with the workshop with students from Amiens, which created moveable type from digital fonts, students from Besançon did the exact reverse – they digitised lead type in the school's collections. The type design phase was overseen by Thomas Huot-Marchand. Damien Gautier assisted with the creation of the final type specimen. Here, a variable-width digital version of Atlas, a typeface from the 1930s.

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  • The 'Fonderie des Glaces', a workshop in the forest with Mathias Schweyzer and Laurent Tixador, 9–13 May 2011.

    The "Fonderie des Glaces", a workshop in the forest with Mathias Schweyzer and Laurent Tixador, 9–13 May 2011.

    Mathias Schweyzer offers this description of the workshop: "On Monday, 9 May 2011, a small group of hardy individuals from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Besançon embarked on the creation of a newspaper with the means at hand. Their base camp, set up in the middle of a local forest, became a genuine space for graphic, typographic and artistic experimentation. The final goal of this workshop was to produce a printed, distributable object!" In practice, eleven adventurous souls spent five days in the woods developing ink and printing techniques and tools, produced a newspaper and printed it in 25 copies.

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  • Exhibition  <span class='italique'>100 Beste Plakate 2009</span>, Ecole régionale des beaux-arts de Besançon, 6 April–6 May 2011.

    Exhibition 100 Beste Plakate 2009, Ecole régionale des beaux-arts de Besançon, 6 April–6 May 2011.

    A selection of the 100 best German, Swiss and Austrian posters of 2009. Opening in the presence of Melchior Imboden, co-organiser of the exhibition. An initiative of Christophe Gaudard, one of the school's instructors.

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  • Jean Dupuy exhibition, Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts, Besançon, 10 November–15 December 2010.

    Jean Dupuy exhibition, Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts, Besançon, 10 November–15 December 2010.

    To mark the visit of Jean Dupuy to the school's exhibition of his work, the first-year students observed the assembly of the show, reproduced Dupuy's writings and created a performance with the artist.

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  • Type workshop with an elementary school class, a teacher training college, the Ecole Saint-Claude de Besançon and the Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts.

    Type workshop with an elementary school class, a teacher training college, the Ecole Saint-Claude de Besançon and the Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts.

    This project was the work of three teacher training college interns and Thomas Huot-Marchand, assisted by Émilie Godin and Solène Rodriguez. The goal was to provide an introduction to typography in three half-day sessions. The workshop started with a visit to a traditional type workshop and having the children draw a character. At first, they coloured sheets of alphabets, on which they identified the recurrent elements that make up letters. Then, they cut these basic elements out of black paper and formed letters with them. Based on photographs of their collages, three fonts were digitised, which the children could use in a document in which they described their experiences.

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  • Exhibition <span class='italique'>Helvetica Forever, Story of a Typeface</span>, Ecole régionale des beaux-arts de Besançon, 12–15 May 2011.

    Exhibition Helvetica Forever, Story of a Typeface, Ecole régionale des beaux-arts de Besançon, 12–15 May 2011.

    Commissioner: Lars Müller, Victor Malsy & Philipp Teufel. Exhibition design: Lorena Manzo, Tim Sluiters. Opening followed by a conference by Victor Malsy & Philipp Teufel, at the invitation of Raienr Oldendorf, one of the school's instructors. Within the framework of an exchange tween the Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Artsand the Fachhochschule of Düsseldorf.

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  • BA_magazine

    BA_magazine

    Biannual publication of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux.

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  • DESIR. Exhibition poster and catalogue of DNSEP diplomas (Diplôme National Supérieur d’Expression Plastique), 2009.

    DESIR. Exhibition poster and catalogue of DNSEP diplomas (Diplôme National Supérieur d’Expression Plastique), 2009.

    9 fonts used: AvantGarde-ExtraLight; Type : Type 1 AvantGardeITCbyBT-Book; Type : Type 1 AvantGardeITCbyBT-ExtraLight; Type : Type 1 GothicNo13BT-Regular; Type : Type 1 ITCAvantGardeStd-Bk; Type : OpenType Type 1 ITCAvantGardeStd-BkObl; Type : OpenType Type 1 ITCAvantGardeStd-XLt; Type : OpenType Type 1 ITCAvantGardeStd-XLtObl; Type : OpenType Type 1 Times-Roman; Type : TrueType Documents printed at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux. Download the exhibition's catalogue

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  • Edit! Standards, Formats, Media.

    Edit! Standards, Formats, Media.

    International conference held at Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux, March 2009. Held within the context of a feasibility study for a publishing practices post-graduate diploma, the EDIT conference focused specifically on "tomorrow's publishing", covering the field of traditional paper-based publishing as well as post-media, thus posing in an alternative manner the question of digital publishing or not. The EDIT conference and the post-graduate diploma it leads to offer an in-depth exploration of an area of research already present in the teaching offered at the school – that of the connection between art and design, the cultural and image industries, with which art is seeking to establish a sustainable relation.

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  • Newspaper published on the occasion of <span class='italique'>Imaginez maintenant Bordeaux. Les nouvelles formes d’engagement.</span> Caserne Niel, Bordeaux, 4–7 July 2010.

    Newspaper published on the occasion of Imaginez maintenant Bordeaux. Les nouvelles formes d’engagement. Caserne Niel, Bordeaux, 4–7 July 2010.

    General commissioner: CAPC musée d’art contemporain de Bordeaux. Editorial staff: Charlotte Laubard, Xavier Chabellard, Caroline Melon, Eric Troussicot. Design and coordination: Éric Troussicot, Cyril Vergès, Pierre Ponant, Alice Cavender Articles written by: les étudiants de l’ICART : Charlotte Commeinhes, Lucie Denis, Guillaume Guignès, Nathan Guinjard, Oana Le Roux, Julia Martin, Marine Plaza, Marie-Armelle Quiniou, Camille Sarrat. Coordination : Cyril Vergès Download the newspaper

    Credits:
  • École supérieure des arts et  médias de Caen

    École supérieure des arts et médias de Caen



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  • Camille Blanchemain, project to revive 19th century American woodcut characters, with the goal of incorporating them into the identity of a post-punk festival.

    Camille Blanchemain, project to revive 19th century American woodcut characters, with the goal of incorporating them into the identity of a post-punk festival.



    Credits:
  • Julien Foulon, Last Century & Last Century Sans : typographic design.

    Julien Foulon, Last Century & Last Century Sans : typographic design.



    Credits:
  • Juliette Hoefler, Layout and editorial research for a work devoted to Noam Chomsky.

    Juliette Hoefler, Layout and editorial research for a work devoted to Noam Chomsky.



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  • Anne Jacquinot, photographic reportage on the destruction of buildings.

    Anne Jacquinot, photographic reportage on the destruction of buildings.



    Credits:
  • Mickaël Martin, research, development and use of a logo in the context of a project to create a graphic journal.

    Mickaël Martin, research, development and use of a logo in the context of a project to create a graphic journal.



    Credits:
  • Nicolas Millot's project, Ecole Supérieure d’Art, Cambrai.

    Nicolas Millot's project, Ecole Supérieure d’Art, Cambrai.

    In Tahitian, the word parau can mean speech, word, speak, and language, as well as paper, the page of a book, newspaper and poster. Tahitian is an oral language that was transcribed for the first time in the early 19th century. The first issues raised by this shift from oral to written had to do with phonemes. What symbols should be used for the sounds? How can one distinguish the sounds that are specific to Tahitian? How can one find – in a continuous string of vowels that can be long or short, aspirated or not, plosive or trailing – small differences in pronunciation that change the meaning entirely? The last 30 years have also seen the emergence of a hybrid French/Tahitian language. The arrival of new technologies and the widespread use of the Internet have given this mixed language a written form. The Internet offers a powerful venue for experimenting with writing. Spelling and grammar of French/Tahitian are not definitely established, and technology can be a means, not for fixing them, but for taking account of the language's evolution and diversity. For this project, publishing, posters and type experiments were used to approach the vocalic and linguistic diversity of Tahitian, and raised a fundamental issue – what type of relationship do we maintain between spoken and written language?

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  • Projet by Alexandre Dumas de Rauly, Ecole Supérieure d’Art, Cambrai.

    Projet by Alexandre Dumas de Rauly, Ecole Supérieure d’Art, Cambrai.



    Credits:
  • <span class='italique'>Futura</span> exhibition, Galerie Anatome, Paris, May-July 2011.

    Futura exhibition, Galerie Anatome, Paris, May-July 2011.



    Credits:
  • Publication by Alexandre Dumas de Rauly and Michel Wlassikoff, <span class='italique'>Futura</span>, Paris, Norma, 2011.

    Publication by Alexandre Dumas de Rauly and Michel Wlassikoff, Futura, Paris, Norma, 2011.



    Credits:
  • Nicolas Millot's project, Ecole Supérieure d’Art, Cambrai.

    Nicolas Millot's project, Ecole Supérieure d’Art, Cambrai.

    In Tahitian, the word parau can mean speech, word, speak, and language, as well as paper, the page of a book, newspaper and poster. Tahitian is an oral language that was transcribed for the first time in the early 19th century. The first issues raised by this shift from oral to written had to do with phonemes. What symbols should be used for the sounds? How can one distinguish the sounds that are specific to Tahitian? How can one find – in a continuous string of vowels that can be long or short, aspirated or not, plosive or trailing – small differences in pronunciation that change the meaning entirely? The last 30 years have also seen the emergence of a hybrid French/Tahitian language. The arrival of new technologies and the widespread use of the Internet have given this mixed language a written form. The Internet offers a powerful venue for experimenting with writing. Spelling and grammar of French/Tahitian are not definitely established, and technology can be a means, not for fixing them, but for taking account of the language's evolution and diversity. For this project, publishing, posters and type experiments were used to approach the vocalic and linguistic diversity of Tahitian, and raised a fundamental issue – what type of relationship do we maintain between spoken and written language?

    Credits:
  • Work by second-year students at the Ecole d’Art in Épinal.

    Work by second-year students at the Ecole d’Art in Épinal.

    The second-year students of the Epinal and Metz art schools took a quotation and gave it new meaning, with an eye to presenting it in a different format. Much like Vincent Perrottet, who presented his work, students used their personal codes and developed a distinct visual language to lay out a quote from an author. The end-goal of this effort was the printing of a series of posters for a traveling exhibition. Download the booklet (pdf)

    Credits:
  • Work by second- and third-year students at the Ecole d’Art in Épinal.

    Work by second- and third-year students at the Ecole d’Art in Épinal.

    For an approach to OuTypoPo, we offered second- and third-year students workshops determined by a selection of Oulipian constraints, which were then transferred to specific typographical constraints. Like Jean-Jacques Tachdjian (guest typographer), students developed their own "OuTypian" constraints. After these four days, they had time to experiment, to develop an alphabet and then to stage a text. Each student's work was organised on one or more pages. This collection is the result of this work and is intended to illustrate the students' various experiments. Download the booklet (pdf)

    Credits:
  • Work by second-year students at the Ecole d’Art in Épinal.

    Work by second-year students at the Ecole d’Art in Épinal.

    Since 2000, the two art schools in Metz and Epinal have teamed up to share skills and foster relationships and student mobility. In 2010/2011, two week-long workshops were offered to second-year students from both schools. In Metz, a cross-cutting, multidisciplinary workshop was offered based on the staging of Les articulations de la reine 2, a play by François Sarhan that was the subject of a show given at Metz in Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains on 7 December 2010. The second workshop, held in Epinal, was entitled "Playing with both past and present so that letters take on new meanings and books take on new forms". By examining the work Olyff Clotilde as a scientific work of typography, students played and invented rules to build bridges between theory and practice of type design. They adopted a word from Georges Perec's, I like, I don't like, spatialising it in a given format and thus becoming character puppeteers. This collection presents the results of their research.

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  • École Estienne, outside view

    École Estienne, outside view

    École Estienne

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  • École Estienne, screen printing

    École Estienne, screen printing

    École Estienne

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  • École Estienne, typesetting

    École Estienne, typesetting

    École Estienne

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  • École Estienne, lithography

    École Estienne, lithography

    École Estienne

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  • École Estienne, lithography

    École Estienne, lithography

    École Estienne

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  • <span class='italique'>À propos de Claude Garamont</span>

    À propos de Claude Garamont

    Typographic posters designed in a limited time (4 hours) on the theme: "What can you say about Claude Garamond?" by first-year students.

  • Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    This type system is meant to update the communication of the town of Montreuil, and represent the community's socio-cultural mix and diversity. The use of this system is based on the system for composing messages on cell phone keypads, i.e. there is not just one letter associated with the "a" key on the computer keyboard. In this way, the designer can choose the desired sign or module by pressing several keys on the keyboard. All signs, letters and modules can be combined. It is then possible to act directly on the drawing of letters, to mix everything together to create original lettering, to write the word "bicycle" or to draw a bicycle. The video shows the selection that occurs when you press the keys several times. Just set the line spacing and the game can begin.

  • Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    This type system is meant to update the communication of the town of Montreuil, and represent the community's socio-cultural mix and diversity. The use of this system is based on the system for composing messages on cell phone keypads, i.e. there is not just one letter associated with the "a" key on the computer keyboard. In this way, the designer can choose the desired sign or module by pressing several keys on the keyboard. All signs, letters and modules can be combined. It is then possible to act directly on the drawing of letters, to mix everything together to create original lettering, to write the word "bicycle" or to draw a bicycle. The video shows the selection that occurs when you press the keys several times. Just set the line spacing and the game can begin.

    Credits:
  • Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    This type system is meant to update the communication of the town of Montreuil, and represent the community's socio-cultural mix and diversity. The use of this system is based on the system for composing messages on cell phone keypads, i.e. there is not just one letter associated with the "a" key on the computer keyboard. In this way, the designer can choose the desired sign or module by pressing several keys on the keyboard. All signs, letters and modules can be combined. It is then possible to act directly on the drawing of letters, to mix everything together to create original lettering, to write the word "bicycle" or to draw a bicycle. The video shows the selection that occurs when you press the keys several times. Just set the line spacing and the game can begin.

    Credits:
  • Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    Julien Priez, the Montreuil typeface

    This type system is meant to update the communication of the town of Montreuil, and represent the community's socio-cultural mix and diversity. The use of this system is based on the system for composing messages on cell phone keypads, i.e. there is not just one letter associated with the "a" key on the computer keyboard. In this way, the designer can choose the desired sign or module by pressing several keys on the keyboard. All signs, letters and modules can be combined. It is then possible to act directly on the drawing of letters, to mix everything together to create original lettering, to write the word "bicycle" or to draw a bicycle. The video shows the selection that occurs when you press the keys several times. Just set the line spacing and the game can begin.

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  • Title of the exhibition 'Vernaculairement parlant' (Vernacularly Speaking) using the typeface Franciscopolis.

    Title of the exhibition "Vernaculairement parlant" (Vernacularly Speaking) using the typeface Franciscopolis.

    Sampling printed letters from around the city and then digitising them to create the typeface Franciscopolis

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  • Monogram of Le Havre made with the alphabet designed collectively by the students.

    Monogram of Le Havre made with the alphabet designed collectively by the students.



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  • Research project by Laura Parettee

    Research project by Laura Parettee



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  • Oulipo workshop: writing exercises and creation of typographic posters.

    Oulipo workshop: writing exercises and creation of typographic posters.

    An example of "Rewriting".

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  • Creative workshop led by Malou Verlomme

    Creative workshop led by Malou Verlomme



    Credits:
  • Creative workshop led by Malou Verlomme

    Creative workshop led by Malou Verlomme

    Each student created an alphabet during the session.

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  • <span class='italique'>Architecture & Typographie</span>, Prototype, 2010.

    Architecture & Typographie, Prototype, 2010.

    Published by B42: August 2011

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  • Samuel Rambaud: publication on the Dada movement.

    Samuel Rambaud: publication on the Dada movement.

    Student in the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques programme (2009).

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  • Samuel Rambaud: publication on the Dada movement.

    Samuel Rambaud: publication on the Dada movement.



  • Alaric Garnier, installation for a series of conferences at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. Painted lettering on various supports

    Alaric Garnier, installation for a series of conferences at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. Painted lettering on various supports

    Student in the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques programme (2011).

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  • Alaric Garnier, installation for a series of conferences at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. Painted lettering on various supports

    Alaric Garnier, installation for a series of conferences at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. Painted lettering on various supports

    Student in the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques programme (2011).

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  • Amélie Goumillou, conference poster.

    Amélie Goumillou, conference poster.

    Student in the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques programme (2009)

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  • Thomas Leblond, posters created around the issue of popular graphic design.

    Thomas Leblond, posters created around the issue of popular graphic design.

    Student in the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques programme (2010)

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  • Thomas Leblond, conference poster.

    Thomas Leblond, conference poster.

    Student in the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques programme (2010)

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  • <span class='italique'>Points de Vue. Formes de l’édition contemporaine.</span>

    Points de Vue. Formes de l’édition contemporaine.

    Event co-organised with the Ecole Supérieure d'Art in Grenoble, the Ecole Régionale des Beaux-Arts in Valence and the Ecole Supérieure d'Art et Design in Saint-Étienne.

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  • Tony Simoës Relvas, monograph on Roger Excoffon.

    Tony Simoës Relvas, monograph on Roger Excoffon.

    Student in the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques programme (2008).

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  • <span class='italique'>Holzwege Chemins qui ne mènent nulle part</span>, 2010.

    Holzwege Chemins qui ne mènent nulle part, 2010.

    A co-production of the École Supérieure Metz Métropole, centre d'art contemporain La synagogue de Delme, association La Première Rue, Briey-en-Fôret and gutleut verlag, Frankfurt am Main.

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  • Wei Chang, école nationale supérieure d'art de Nancy, communication option, third year.

    Wei Chang, école nationale supérieure d'art de Nancy, communication option, third year.

    "This work of animated typography is based on a poem by Raymond Queneau, "Une facilité de pensée" from Courir les Rues. For me, this text is an allegory of Plato's cave, and so I played with this image, going from total darkness, then partial to full sunlight, as a metaphor for going from the interior to the exterior. The sound (a crackling fire) attempts to extend this commitment."

  • Antoine Dupuy, école nationale supérieure d’art de Nancy, communication option, third year.

    Antoine Dupuy, école nationale supérieure d’art de Nancy, communication option, third year.

    Passage is a typographical experiment having to do with matter and words. The ones I selected are associated with a material that, over time, can reveal them or make them disappear. The idea of immediacy, of ephemerality is present in each video via the processes employed. The idea is to elicit a reflection between the word and how it is formed/deformed. Time is the common denominator between the sequences, which are different and by the processes involves. How time reveals or conceals words allows the viewer to perceive the world differently. Behind the supposedly aesthetic appearance is a dimension reflective of our society and its political and social aspects."

  • Workshop with Bertrand Duplat.

    Workshop with Bertrand Duplat.

    Interactive book project. Augmented reality made with Processing. Screen printing on the cover and digital printing. Format: 16x21cm

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  • Bertrand Sandrez, <span class='italique'>Thirty-six, the book</span>.

    Bertrand Sandrez, Thirty-six, the book.

    Book project based on bicycle culture in Copenhagen, within the context of Erasmus, in Würzburg, Germany. Format: 18x21cm

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  • The front page of <span class='italique'>Le Monde</span> in Braille, creating a system of typographic hierarchy.

    The front page of Le Monde in Braille, creating a system of typographic hierarchy.



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  • Modulaire typeface.

    Modulaire typeface.



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  • Study of habits at ESAD, survey and publication

    Study of habits at ESAD, survey and publication



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  • Political awakening, graphic design and activism.

    Political awakening, graphic design and activism.



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  • Typography(ies), playful and educational presentation of four characters.

    Typography(ies), playful and educational presentation of four characters.



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  • Instant dialogue interface, typography. Gesture

    Instant dialogue interface, typography. Gesture



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  • 'Nothing left but the bones' (after Charles Dobzynski), poetry and the urban zone.

    "Nothing left but the bones" (after Charles Dobzynski), poetry and the urban zone.



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  • Parametric type design

    Parametric type design



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  • Sensitive text, digital book interface

    Sensitive text, digital book interface



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  • ADT (typographic cut-out workshop).

    ADT (typographic cut-out workshop).

    In 1998, a group of students spontaneously decided on a project involving copyright-free typefaces (graphic communication).

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  • Mademoiselle Berthe: draft design and finished work

    Mademoiselle Berthe: draft design and finished work

    (Sandra Chamaret, graphic communication, 1997).

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  • Garamond & Co

    Garamond & Co

    A survey conducted by Alexandre Brand (visual training, 2009).
    This project was developed in the context of a course by Vivien Philizot within the visual training workshop. The visual training workshop is one of three workshops within the communication option at the École Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs in Strasbourg. Its programme is unique in France, training students through images, and the transmission of science, knowledge and cultural mediation.

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  • Bizeau Sans: digital typeface for signage (Sébastien Delobel, graphic communication, 1997)

    Bizeau Sans: digital typeface for signage (Sébastien Delobel, graphic communication, 1997)



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  • Hachures: or how to cut up telephone directories

    Hachures: or how to cut up telephone directories

    (Maud Guerche, graphic communication, 2009).

    Credits:
  • Light, normal and bold, the <span class='italique'>Voyageurs</span> font by Julien Laureau

    Light, normal and bold, the Voyageurs font by Julien Laureau

    (Visual training, 2011).

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  • Prototyp-o

    Prototyp-o

    With Prototyp-o, Yannick Mathey designed a typographic concept generator using Processing an open-source language and programming interface (graphic communication, 2010).

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  • Stanislas: an experiment with subtitling and type design using 'supersigns' for fast, intuitive reading, by Sandrine Nugue (graphic communication, 2011).

    Stanislas: an experiment with subtitling and type design using "supersigns" for fast, intuitive reading, by Sandrine Nugue (graphic communication, 2011).



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  • Tchik Jroulns: Annabel Schenk collected stories in the region of Ladakh and engraved them in wood in Ladakhi manner.

    Tchik Jroulns: Annabel Schenk collected stories in the region of Ladakh and engraved them in wood in Ladakhi manner.

    (L'Ours, research and creation workshop, 2009).

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  • Modulo: from a design sketchbook to publication by Linotype

    Modulo: from a design sketchbook to publication by Linotype

    (Olivier Umecker, graphic communication,1997–1998)

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  • Fontzéro examines the relationship between language, writing and typography

    Fontzéro examines the relationship between language, writing and typography

    (Vivien Philizot, Raphaël Tardif, graphic communication, 2000).

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  • Exhibition 'Górowski / Kunce / Pluta'

    Exhibition "Górowski / Kunce / Pluta"

    Three Polish poster designers teaching at the Krakow School of Fine Arts, presented at the Palais des Arts of the Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de Toulouse, April 2005. Exhibition poster.
    Exhibition invitations.
    Typfaces Pixat and Vampyr, designed by students. .

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  • Variants and chromatic choices for <span class='italique'>Apocalypse</span>.

    Variants and chromatic choices for Apocalypse.

    A publication designed by students in the Communication option of the Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse, 2010.
    This collection of drawings is the result of a double intensive workshop led by Jochen Gerner in the fall of 2009. The texts are composed in Vampyr Stripe, Jenson Rotunda and Fedra Stylo-bille, with typography designed by Morgan Pansier, Benjamin Renaud and Aurelien Vret.

    Credits:
  • Double-page from <span class='italique'>Apocalypse</span>.

    Double-page from Apocalypse.

    Design: the Communication option from the Ecole Superieure des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse, 2010. Vampyr Stripes font designed by Benjamin Renaud and Aurélien Vret, fifth-year students in the communication option. This collection of drawings is the result of a double intensive workshop led by Jochen Gerner in the fall of 2009.

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  • Type specimen of 'Garonne', shown at the exhibition N-1 of the Biennale internationale de Design, Saint-Étienne, 2010.

    Type specimen of "Garonne", shown at the exhibition N-1 of the Biennale internationale de Design, Saint-Étienne, 2010.

    Double-sided A1-format poster, foldable into an 8-page A4 booklet, Pantone colours, 1,500 copies.

    Credits:
  • View of exhibition (June to October 2009) of the 'Garonne' typeface, organized in collaboration with the city of Toulouse.

    View of exhibition (June to October 2009) of the "Garonne" typeface, organized in collaboration with the city of Toulouse.

    Open-air exhibition in downtown Toulouse of some fifty double-sided educational panels about of the process of designing and producing this typeface.

    Credits:
  • Jenson Rotunda workshop led by Alejandro Lo Celso with students in the communciation option at Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse.

    Jenson Rotunda workshop led by Alejandro Lo Celso with students in the communciation option at Ecole Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse.

    Research workshop in partnership with the Toulouse Heritage Study Library in 2009-2010.

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  • Presentation booklet of the Ecole Superieure des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse, 2007, Pixat font.

    Presentation booklet of the Ecole Superieure des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse, 2007, Pixat font.

    Group typographic project conducted in 2004 by third-year students in the communication option, finalised by Laure Afchain

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  • Translation & layout by Joris Livrieri, 2009 <span class='italique'>The Crystal Goblet</span>, by Beatrice Warde, 1925

    Translation & layout by Joris Livrieri, 2009 The Crystal Goblet, by Beatrice Warde, 1925

    Seventh contribution to the occasional anthology
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  • AATO – Atelier Typographie & Offset (Type and Offset Workshop).
Fabrice Belot, Annick Lantenois, David Poullard, Samuel Vermeil.

    AATO – Atelier Typographie & Offset (Type and Offset Workshop). Fabrice Belot, Annick Lantenois, David Poullard, Samuel Vermeil.

    Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design de Valence, DG2, Autumn 2008
    The object. Introduction to typography, layout and offset printing. The project: create a brochure containing the work and research of each participant. The method: research in order to identify the author, publisher, historical context and specific conditions of the design of the chosen typeface and its various uses. Everyone lays out the results of his or her research on four 12 x 17 cm pages (2 double pages) that will be gathered together and printed on the offset press. Stages: documentary research and writing, formatting of the document, printing and production of the brochure.

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  • Sébastien Biniek, NDSI — Digitisation of an unstable force.

    Sébastien Biniek, NDSI — Digitisation of an unstable force.

    Student project for the Diplôme National d’Arts et Techniques (DNAT) for the October 2011 session. Sébastien Biniek has worked on type design based on the formal structure of sans serif type used in mapmaking since the early twentieth century. "The purpose of this study, situated between writing and typography, integrates the uncertainty and the fragility of every mark. This was initially approached in a sensory manner in order to grasp the typographical nuance that these texts engender; a secondary, systematic study followed in order to identify the “average” variables involved. The process of designing type was explored in light of the possible gaps between these two methodological approaches when applied to objects whose contours appear to transcend formal systematization.” Sébastien Biniek is a 3rd year graphic design student at the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Valence (Dnat 2011).

    Credits:
  • Valentin Barry, <span class='italique'>Typographical Research, 2007-09 .</span>

    Valentin Barry, Typographical Research, 2007-09 .

    Booklet, 48 pages, 18 x 25 cm, duotone.
    "I have had the experience of focusing some of my projects on the concept of a typeface. Either because I feel no other face is suitable for my subject or because the conceptual technical constraints of a project require the design of a certain type of font […]. Those that were not designed for a specific project were conceived during workshops or out of a simple desire for experimentation." Valentin Barry holds a degree (Diplôme National Supérieur d'Expression Plastique – DNSEP) from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Valence, June 2011.

    Credits:
  • Maxime Foisseau et Charlotte Gauvin, <span class='italique'>Typrocessing — Tools for Typographical Creation.</span>

    Maxime Foisseau et Charlotte Gauvin, Typrocessing — Tools for Typographical Creation.

    This project originated in a workshop that took place in April 2011 at La Cambre. For three days, the graphic designer Lionel Maes held the workshop at the studio La Villa Hermosa, on the language and interface of open-source processing. We developed a structure built on the idea of measuring variations in readability through programming. Based on two existing characters (Akzidenz sans serif roman and Cochin roman), we created a new type design. Both fonts were chosen for their x-height and their similar weights; superposing them led to the appearance of a hybrid typeface. The glyphs were then defined using forms on embedded control points, allowing formal play. Charlotte Gauvin and Maxime Foisseau hold degrees (Diplôme National Supérieur d'Expression Plastique – DNSEP) from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Valence, October 2010.

    Credits:
  • Adrien Vasquez, <span class='italique'>Valences</span>
Project for the DNSEP, June 2010

    Adrien Vasquez, Valences Project for the DNSEP, June 2010

    "Four variations of my typeface Valence were developed through a fictional identity of the school, each determined by a particular context. The poster describes the process while serving as a type specimen. There is a limit where a letter is no longer considered as such. Is there such a limit with respect to a family of typefaces? The absurd thickness of the notebook of Valence variants acts as a reminder of these limits. " Adrien Vasquez holds a degree (Diplôme National Supérieur d'Expression Plastique – DNSEP) from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Valence, June 2009.

    Credits:
  • Valentin Barry, <span class='italique'>We Are</span>, 2008.

    Valentin Barry, We Are, 2008.

    Flash Animation and sound track, 3’.
    This animation project is “approached in a spirit of research—its principle intention is to integrate writing, sound and graphic design—through modular typography—in the same context (…). We Are is one of the possible results of this research.” Valentin Barry holds a degree (Diplôme National Supérieur d'Expression Plastique – DNSEP) from the Ecole Supérieure d’Art et de Design in Valence, June 2011.

  •  The Atelier du livre d’Art et de l’Estampe

    The Atelier du livre d’Art et de l’Estampe



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  • Punch-cutting station, Atelier du Livre d’Art et de l’Estampe

    Punch-cutting station, Atelier du Livre d’Art et de l’Estampe



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  •  The Atelier du livre d’Art et de l’Estampe

    The Atelier du livre d’Art et de l’Estampe



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  • The  Musée de l’Imprimerie

    The Musée de l’Imprimerie

    The Musée de l’Imprimerie is located in Lyon, in the Hôtel de la Couronne.

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  • The collections of the Musée de l’Imprimerie in Lyon.

    The collections of the Musée de l’Imprimerie in Lyon.

    Interview with Alan Marshall, 29 March 2011, 4’30.

  • The mission of the Musée de l’Imprimerie in Lyon.

    The mission of the Musée de l’Imprimerie in Lyon.

    Interview with Alan Marshall, 29 March 2011, 3’21.

  • A gallery in the Musée de l’Imprimerie with a Gutenberg-style printing press.

    A gallery in the Musée de l’Imprimerie with a Gutenberg-style printing press.



    Credits:
  • Museum Plantin-Moretus. Small library.

    Museum Plantin-Moretus. Small library.



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  • Courtyard of the Museum Plantin-Moretus (Antwerp).

    Courtyard of the Museum Plantin-Moretus (Antwerp).



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  • Museum Plantin-Moretus. Large library.

    Museum Plantin-Moretus. Large library.



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  • The oldest printing presses in the world are preserved at the Musée Plantin-Moretus.

    The oldest printing presses in the world are preserved at the Musée Plantin-Moretus.



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  • The Museum Plantin-Moretus.

    The Museum Plantin-Moretus.



  • Aristote, <span class='italique'>Aristotelis rhetoricorum ad Theodecten</span>

    Aristote, Aristotelis rhetoricorum ad Theodecten

    Paris, Simon de Colines, 1540, octavo.
    Title page bearing the celebrated printer's mark of Simon de Colines, which depicts time (Tempus) as a reaper.

    Credits:
  • Historic Typefaces and Teaching

    Historic Typefaces and Teaching

    Interview with Franck Jalleau, instructor at the Ecole Estienne, 21 April 2011, 0'35

  • Interview with Jean-Baptiste Levée, instructor at the École Supérieure d'Arts et Médias in Caen, 0'56

    Interview with Jean-Baptiste Levée, instructor at the École Supérieure d'Arts et Médias in Caen, 0'56



  • The uses of Helvetica, Times and Garamond: the Clothing Metaphor.

    The uses of Helvetica, Times and Garamond: the Clothing Metaphor.

    Interview with Muriel Paris, instructor at the École Supérieure de Design, d'Art Graphique et d'Architecture Intérieure Penninghen, 4 July 2011, 3'15

  • Study of a Typographical Family: The Garaldes.

    Study of a Typographical Family: The Garaldes.

    Interview with Muriel Paris, instructor at the École Supérieure de Design, d'Art Graphique et d'Architecture Intérieure Penninghen, 4 July 2011, 4'22

  • Interview with Michel Wlassikoff, instructor at the Ecole Estienne, 15 June 2011, 7'25''

    Interview with Michel Wlassikoff, instructor at the Ecole Estienne, 15 June 2011, 7'25''



  • Interview with Michel Wlassikoff, 15 June 2011. 3'30

    Interview with Michel Wlassikoff, 15 June 2011. 3'30



  • Carte des établissements français

    Carte des établissements français



    Credits:
  • Garamond and Sreen Displays. Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 June 2011, 2'06''

    Garamond and Sreen Displays. Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 June 2011, 2'06''



  • Garamond in the digital era. Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 June 2011, 4'

    Garamond in the digital era. Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 June 2011, 4'



  • Choosing and comparing typefaces. Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 June 2011, 4'26''

    Choosing and comparing typefaces. Interview with Roxane Jubert, 15 June 2011, 4'26''



  • Books and the book trade in Paris in 1540

    Books and the book trade in Paris in 1540

    The so-called "Basle Map" of Paris (also known as the Truchet-Hoyau map) offers an accurate rendering of Paris's streets in the mid-16th century, and indicates the capital's most prominent public buildings, educational establishments and religious institutions. This makes it a useful map for locating bookshops, printers' workshops and type foundries that were active in Paris in 1540, when Claude Garamont began his career as a type punch-cutter. An examination of Philippe Renouard's Répertoire des imprimeurs parisiens (1898, reviewed and corrected in 1965 by Brigitte Moreau and Jeanne Veyrin-Forrer) reveals 150 individuals active in the book trade in 1540, including their addresses. To locate the townhouses in question, we drew on the Topographie historique du Vieux Paris – begun in the 1860s by Adolphe Berty – which provided the location of a few shop signs. Although it provides an accurate view of the streets of Paris, the Basel Map does not depict the reality of the built environment – there were many more houses than those appearing on the map (which are included only for aesthetic reasons). Because of this, the map is of necessity inaccurate, but it is useful for perceiving the distribution and the spatial relationships between the various bookshops. We can see that the vast majority of shops were clustered around two main hubs: the Palace on the Ile de la Cité and the Eglise Saint-Benoît in the Rue Saint-Jacques. A few outlying shops were located near the Boulevard Saint-Germain, or outside the city walls in the Faubourg Saint-Marcel.

  • Type design

    Type design



    Credits:
  • Printing with Robert Estienne

    Printing with Robert Estienne

    Animation showing the printing process as developed by Gutenberg.